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Foreword by David Bellamy 

Hidden Nature 

The Startling Insights of Viktor Schauberger 

Alick Bartholomew 


Foreword by David Bellamy 11 
Introduction 13 

Part One: An Alternative Worldview 

1. Schauberger's Vision 25 
The water wizard 26; Log flumes 29; Water, source of life 31; 
Motion is crucial 32; Temperature controls 34; Evolution 34; 
Balance 35; Implosion 35; The visionary 36. 

2. Different Kinds of Energy 39 
Subtle energies 39; Schauberger's worldview 39; Why the mystery? 
40; Degrees of energy 41; The vortex as the key to creative 
evolution 42; Energies as creative process 43; Spiritual science 44; 
Different dimensions 45; Changing octaves 47. 

3. The Attraction and Repulsion of Opposites 49 
The Sun as a fertilizing entity 49; Polarities 51; Opposites working 
towards balance 52; Gravity and levity 53. 

4. Nature's Patterns and Shapes 55 
Sound as resonance 55; Resonance is about qualities 58; Plants 
have perception and memory 59; Cymatics 60; Patterns and shapes 
61; Patterns in motion 62; Rhythms within the solar system 62; 
The confrontation of two geometric systems 63; Sacred geometry 
64; The golden mean 66; The magic of the egg form 67. 

Part Two: How the World Works 

5. Energy Production 73 
The inefficiency of modern technology 73; Entropy and ectropy 74; 
Scientific 'laws' 74; Energy pollution 75; The choice before us 77; 
Energy defines quality 79; The creative energy vortex 80. 

6. Motion — the Key to Balance 85 
We use the wrong form of motion 85; The 'original' motion 87; 
Types of motion 89. 

7. The Atmosphere and Electricity 93 
Earth's atmosphere 94; Electricity 96; The terrestrial biocondenser 
97; Earth as an accumulator of energy 99; Electricism and 
magnetism 100; Storms, water vapour and climate 101. 

Part Three: Water — the Source of Life 

8. The Nature of Water 105 
The memory of water 107; The creation of water 108; The anomaly 
point of water 109; The qualities of different waters 111; How the 
river protects itself 112; The temperature gradient 114. 

9. The Hydrological Cycle 117 
The full half hydrological cycle 117; The half hydrological cycle 
120; Temperature gradients and nutrient supply. 123 

10. The Formation of Springs 127 
The veneration of springs 127; Seepage springs 129; True springs 129; 
How spring water rises 131; Producing energy from the ocean 133. 

11. Rivers and how They Flow 135 
Stages of a river 135; Temperature and the movement of water 136; 
Creating a positive temperature gradient 137; The formation of 
vortices and bends 142; Vortices as the source of creative energy 
144; The formation of bends 145; Conventional river engineering 
147; Hydroelectric power 147. 

12. Supplying Water 151 
Dwindling water supplies 151; Water for profit 152; Modern water 
treatments 153; Transmuting waters memory 155; Tubular water 
movement 156; Water main material 156; The Stuttgart tests 159; 
The circulation of blood 160; Water storage 162. 

Part Four: The Life of Trees 

13. The Role of the Forest 167 
Evolution of the forest 167; Destruction of the forests 168; A moral 
tale 169; Tropical rainforests 171; Forestry 174; Monoculture 175; 
Biodiversity 176; Energy in the forest 178. 

14. The Life and Nature of Trees 181 
Trees in the biosphere 181; The form of a tree 182; Trees and 

humans — a symbiotic relationship 183; Trees and colour 184; 
The physical nature of trees 185; Tree classification 186; Light- and 
shade-demanding trees 188; Light-induced growth 191; Man-made 
depredations 191; The importance of photosynthesis 193; The 
creation of water 195; The maturation of water 196. 

15. The Metabolism of the Tree 199 
Sap movement 199; Temperature gradients in the tree 204; The tree 
as a biocondenser 207; Root systems 209; Soil and nutrition 210. 

Part Five: Working with Nature 

16. Soil Fertility and Cultivation 215 
The crisis in intensive farming 215; Ploughing methods 216; Two 
kinds of electromagnetism 216; The golden plough 217; The 
bioplough 218; Alignment of furrows 220; Grazing and grass 
cutting 220; Artificial fertilizers 221. 

17. Organic Cultivation 225 
Biological agriculture 225; Soil remineralization 225; Organic 
farming 226; Biodynamic farming 229; The role of subtle energies 
in Nature 231; Cold Fire 234; Fertilizing energies 236. 

Part Six: The Energy Revolution 

18. Harnessing Implosion Power 241 
The beginnings of implosion research 241; The American 
consortium 244; A new kind of aircraft? 245; Schauberger's search 
for free energy 247; The biological vacuum 249; Nuclear fusion 
251; The repulsator 252; The implosion motor 253; The repulsine 
and flying saucer 254. 

19. Viktor Schauberger and Society 259 
The human legacy 259; What of the future? 

Appendix: Implementing Schauberger's vision 264 

Endnotes 27 1 

Resources 276 

Bibliography 278 

List of Illustrations 281 

Index 283 


Water is the commonest substance on the face of the Earth, yet we 
really know very little about this essential source of life. We do know 
that without it there would be no life — indeed there would be lit- 
tle in the way of chemical reaction, for water is the universal cata- 
lyst. Water is also our potential nemesis, for today it is widely agreed 
that if there is another world war, it will be waged over this precious 
resource. Water in a state fit enough for human consumption or for 
succouring the life cycle of the brown trout is now in short supply 
and its availability is diminishing every day. 

Before Austria had stripped her mountains of all her old growth 
forests, Viktor Schauberger, a forester, observing how a trout could 
maintain its station in the midst of a turbulent stream, discovered 
the secret of living water. Distilled from the sea and leaving most of 
its burden of salt behind, it droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven, 
taking up kinetic energy as it makes its way back to ordnance 
datum (standard sea level), itself controlled by the balance of the 
global greenhouse. 

En route this living water absorbs minerals from both soil and 
bedrock sufficient to nurture the pulse of life itself, tiny herbs, some 
full of the power of healing, and the natural vegetation that gener- 
ates organic soil. The trees, reaching up to the Sun, power houses for 
transforming energy, are driven by living water, ameliorating the 
climate near the ground, controlling erosion and helping to main- 
tain the life-giving water cycle. 

If this cycle gets out of balance in any way, the consequences are 
dire, as insurance companies are now discovering. Drought, floods, 
winds and wild fire out of control, and perhaps worst of all, eutroph- 
ication, the clever name for too many nutrients choking the very 
arteries through which living water used to meander its self-cleans- 
ing way down to the sea. 

There is much in Schauberger's philosophy that gets up the 
noses of the science that sees only financial profit at the end of their 
glass telescope of knowledge. Alick Bartholomew is to be congratu- 
lated for bringing Schauberger's vision into focus in this book at the 
most opportune time. Wave power is beginning to come on stream 


with the promise of base load electricity cheap enough to split, not 
the polluting atom, but the water molecule, into oxygen and hydro- 
gen — the latter to fuel the much discussed non-polluting, fuel cell- 
based, hydrogen economy. 

Is this a wise strategy? In the absence of Schauberger as my 
mentor I sat beside the stream in my garden with Tornado jets mak- 
ing warlike passes overhead, and watched a trout enjoying what are 
perhaps the only real human rights, peace and access to living 

David Bellamy, 
Bedburn, February 2003 



'I no longer own my own mind. I don't own even my own thoughts. 
After all I've done, finally there is nothing left. I am a man with no 
future.' 1 These were the words of Viktor Schauberger, an Austrian 
naturalist, the pioneer of Eco-technology (working with Nature) 
who had devoted his life to demonstrating how the desecration of 
our environment proceeds directly from our complete ignorance of 
how Nature works at the energy level. His controversial credo was 
that humanity must begin, with humility, to study Nature and learn 
from it, rather than try to correct it. We have put the future of 
humanity at risk by the way we produce and consume energy. His 
aim was to liberate people from dependence on inefficient and pol- 
luting centralized energy resources and generation of power. 

Viktor was communicating his distress to his son, Walter, on the 
plane home from Texas after a nightmare of exhausting cross- 
examination to extract the secrets of the devices he had developed 
which demonstrated free energy, anti-gravity and fuel-less flight. 
He died five days later on September 25,1958, in Linz, Austria, of a 
broken heart. Father and son had embarked on an ambitious, but 
ill-conceived, scheme hatched by an American consortium' which 
probably had CIA and atomic energy connections, in order to per- 
suade him to give up the keys to his mysterious research (see Chap- 
ter 18). Schauberger had in 1944, under threat of death, been forced 
to develop a flying saucer programme for the Third Reich, the secret 
weapon which, had it been initiated two years earlier, might well 
have tipped the war's balance in Germany's favour. 

Schauberger's inspiration came from studying the water in fast- 
flowing streams in the unspoilt Austrian Alps, where he worked as a 
forest warden. From his astute observations he became a self-trained 
engineer, eventually learning, through the implosive, or centripetally 
moving, processes that Nature uses, how to release energy 127 times 
more powerful than conventional power generation. By 1937 he had 
developed an implosion motor that produced a thrust of l,290m/sec, 
or about four times the speed of sound. In 1941 Air Marshall Udet 
asked him to help solve the growing energy crisis in Germany; how- 
ever the research came to an end when Udet died and the plant was 


subsequently destroyed by Allied bombing. When in 1943 Heinrich 
Himmler directed Viktor to develop a new secret weapon system with 
a team of engineer prisoners-of-war, he had no choice but to comply. 

The critical tests came just before the end of the European war. A 
flying disc was launched in Prague on February 19,1945, which rose 
to an altitude of 15,000 metres in three minutes and attained a for- 
ward speed of 2,200kph. 2 An improved version was to be launched on 
May 6, the day the American forces arrived at the Leonstein factory 
in Upper Austria. Facing the collapse of the German armies, Field 
Marshal Keitel ordered all the prototypes to be destroyed. 

Schauberger had moved from his apartment in Vienna to the 
comparative safety of Leonstein. Meanwhile the Russians pushed in 
from the East and captured Vienna; a special Soviet investigation 
team ransacked his apartment, taking away vital papers and mod- 
els, and then blew it up. 

The Allies seemed to be well aware of Schauberger's part in 
developing this secret weapon. At the end of hostilities, an Ameri- 
can Special Forces team seized all the equipment from his Leonstein 
home and put him under 'protective U.S. custody 'for nine months' 
debriefing. It seems likely that they could not fathom his strange 
science, for they let him go, although this group, detailed to enlist as 
many of the front-line German scientists as possible, took back 
scores of other 'enemy' scientists to give a vital boost to American 
industrial and military research. They forbade him from pursuing 
'atomic energy' research, which would have left him free to follow 
his dream of fuel-less power. 

For the following nine years Viktor could not continue his implo- 
sion research because the high quality materials needed for his very 
advanced equipment were beyond his means, and he had no spon- 
sors. In addition, he may have been haunted by remorse for having 
been forced by the German SS to design machines of war. 
Schauberger was essentially a man of peace who, above all, wanted to 
help humanity become free; so he turned his attention to making the 
Earth more fertile, developing experimental copper ploughshares. 

Levitation and resistantless movement 

This strange life path had started on his return to civilian life after 
the First World War, when Viktor Schauberger went to work in the 
mountains. His experiences of unspoilt Nature were life-changing. 


One such that would set him on a lonely course to change the course 
of human life for ever, he describes graphically: 

It was spawning time one early spring moonlit night. I was 
sitting beside a waterfall waiting to catch a dangerous fish 
poacher. Something then happened so quickly; I was hardly 
able to grasp it. The moonlight falling onto the crystal clear 
water picked up every movement of a large shoal of fish 
gathered in the pool. Suddenly they dispersed as a big fish 
swam into the pool from below, preparing to confront the 
waterfall. It seemed as though it wanted to scatter the other 
trout as it quickly darted to and fro in great twisting move- 

Then, just as suddenly the large trout disappeared into the 
huge jet of falling water that shone like molten metal. I could 
see it fleetingly, under a conically shaped stream of water, 
dancing in a wild, spinning movement, which at that moment 
didn't make sense to me. When it stopped spinning it seemed 
then to float motionlessly upward. On reaching the lower 
curve of the waterfall it tumbled over and with a strong push 
reached behind the upper curve of the fall. There, in the fast 
flowing water, and with a strong movement of the tail, it 

Deep in thought, I filled my pipe, and as I wended my way 
homewards, smoked it to the finish. Often subsequently, I 
witnessed the same sequence of behaviour of a trout leaping 
up a high waterfall. After decades of similar observations that 
manifested like rows of pearls on a chain, I should be able to 
come to some conclusion. But no scientist has been able to 
explain the phenomenon to me. 

With the right lighting, it is possible to see the path of 
levitational currents as an empty tube within the veil of a 
waterfall. It is similar to the tunnel in the middle of a 
circulating vortex of water plunging down a drain, which 
brings up a gurgling sound. This downwardly-directed 
whirlpool drags everything with increasing suction with it 
into the depths. If you can imagine this whirlpool or water- 
cyclone operating vertically, you get the picture of how the 
levitational current works and you can see how the trout 
appears to be floating upward in the axis of fall. 3 


Viktor used to spend hours watching fish in the streams. He was fas- 
cinated by how the trout could lie motionless in the strongest current 
and then, if alarmed, without warning, would dart upstream rather 
than be carried down with the flow. Having learned from his family 
about the importance of temperature on the energy potential of 
water, he did an experiment. He had colleagues heat up 100 litres of 
water that, on his signal, they poured into the fast-flowing mountain 
stream some 150 metres upstream from where he stood. Viktor 
noted how the trout he had been observing became agitated, and 
soon was unable to hold its station in the fast flowing stream, thrash- 
ing its tail fins to no avail. The minute, but nevertheless abnormal, 
rise in the average temperature of the water and the chaoticized flow 
that resulted, had interfered with the trout's hovering ability. Viktor 
searched the textbooks in vain for an explanation of this marvel. 

He would often quote these experiences with the trout as having 
the most influence on developing his ideas, for temperature and 
motion were the foundations of his theories and discoveries. He 
subsequently developed a generator to produce energy directly 
from air and water, naming it the 'trout turbine' in honour of his 
mentor, though it was later called the 'implosion machine.' 

The non-conformist 

Viktor Schauberger was discredited and criticized by 'the experts,' 
as pioneers have been in the past, from Galileo to Max Planck. He 
insisted that we have betrayed our calling and our heritage, by 
usurping the role of God and trashing our environment. He saw that 
we were hell-bent on a path of self-destruction, and predicted that, 
within a generation, our climate would become more hostile, our 
food sources would dry up, there would be no healthy water, and ill- 
ness, misery and violence would predominate. 

Where have conventional scientists gone astray? By not observ- 
ing carefully how Nature works. If they did, they would be able to 
formulate her laws, as Schauberger has done, and then comply with 
them, so that human society could come into harmony with our 
environment. As he so often said, 'Comprehend and Copy Nature.' 
Instead, modern scientists believe we are above Nature and are free 
to exploit the Earth's resources without consequence. 

Schauberger spelled out clearly exactly where we have gone 
wrong with our technology. How can we start to put things right? 


Certainly by a complete reversal of the way we do things. This can 
involve only a sea change in the way we regard our lives, and a per- 
sonal commitment to help bring about a major shift in our society. 
Only through sufficient numbers joining together in common cause 
can these changes begin. 

He criticized mainline science for its arrogance and herd 
instincts. He also castigated scientists for their blinkeredness, their 
inability to see the connections between things. Schauberger did 
not blame the political hierarchy for the world's woes, as we often do 
today. He believed that political leaders are basically opportunists 
and pawns of the system. It was his own adversaries, the 'techno- 
academic' scientists as he called them, whom he held to blame for 
the dangerous state of the World. 4 

Visionaries and pioneers are inevitably a challenge to the estab- 
lishment in whatever field, for they pose an imagined threat to the 
interests of those who benefit from the status quo. The degree of vil- 
ification seems to depend on the level of rewards at stake. Thus sci- 
ence, as perhaps the most exclusive and arrogant of disciplines, has 
done so much throughout history to undermine great innovators 
like Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo to, in our times, the biological 
pioneers James Lovelock, Rupert Sheldrake and Mae- Wan Ho. 

Despite, or perhaps because of, his interrupted education, Viktor 
retained a great thirst for knowledge. His wife found domestically 
disruptive his tendency to stay up all night, pouring over books of 
every kind, especially the more esoteric variety. There was no ques- 
tion that Viktor felt he had a calling. This was evident from the fact 
that often he seemed to write in a trance-like state, returning to nor- 
mal consciousness quite surprised by what he had just written! 

Schauberger was a man of unshakeable self-confidence and 
inner conviction about the viability of his theories, and unsurpris- 
ingly had a lifelong battle with orthodoxy. Callum Coats describes 
how on one occasion during the Nazi era, good fortune saved his 
life from being taken in a sinister way. 5 He did, however gain 
important support. This was inevitably from the few scientists 
who were not swayed by greed or jealousy and were of more inde- 
pendent mind. One was the Swiss Professor Werner Zimmerman, 
a well-known social reformer who published articles by Viktor in 
his ecologically oriented magazine Tau. Another was Felix Ehren- 
haft, professor of physics at the University of Vienna, who helped 
with Viktor's calculations for his implosion machines. A third very 


loyal friend was Professor Philipp Forchheimer, a hydrologist of 
world repute. 

Most people have heard of Viktor Schauberger only in connec- 
tion with his inspired ideas about water or of the energy-saving 
machines that harnessed the enormous power encapsulated in 
lively water. They were, indeed, so fundamental and important as to 
justify his reputation as an ecological pioneer. However, as we are 
concerned with the broader challenge of restoring the damage 
wrought by humanity on the Earth, we shall need to present 
Schauberger's larger worldview of how Nature works. 

Walter Schauberger, who unlike his father, had a formal educa- 
tion in science and was, for a time, a university lecturer in physics, 
worked hard to make Viktor's ideas more accessible to mainstream 
science. After he did a lecture tour in 1950 at a number of England's 
top universities, some of the distinguished scientists were asked 
what they thought of the Schauberger physics. While they agreed 
that the theories were quite convincing, the problem, it appeared, 
was that 'it would mean rewriting all the textbooks in the world.' 6 

An alternative worldview 

Viktor Schauberger suffered much from the vindictiveness of the 
scientific establishment towards him. Nevertheless, his constant 
complaints about them obscure his principal message, which is far 
more important than academic arrogance per se. This is that our 
whole culture is completely under the thrall of a materialistic 
worldview or way of seeing; we are caught in the excitement of 
apparently being free to do anything we want, and by the glamour 
of possessing lots of riches and distractions. Our science is but the 
product of this worldview, as is our philosophy and education, our 
religion, our politics and our medicine. You don't need to subscribe 
to conspiracy theories to realize that all aspects of our society suf- 
fer from a grand delusion that is contributing to the breakdown of 
our world order and to the collapse of our ecosystems. 

The real issue is that the intellectual movement of the late sev- 
enteenth century, the Enlightenment, and its equivalent in science, 
Rationalism, have caused a great schism in human society. The 
philosopher Rene Descartes (famous for his 'I think therefore I am') 
has a lot to answer for. That movement put man on a pedestal, intro- 
duced the idea of humanity being apart from Nature and started to 


interpret all natural phenomena by a process of deduction. The 
effect has been a separation of thinking from experience, of head 
from heart. Because of the dominance of scientific determinism in 
our culture, the more intuitive way of knowledge is considered as 
suspect, but there is a new awakening taking place at all levels of 
society of people wanting to get in touch with their intuition, who 
feel that rationalism is in fact the Great Delusion. 

We have experiences every day that fall outside the accepted 
conventions of reality; like little synchronicities, intuiting events, 
the sensing of different qualities of 'atmosphere' as emanations 
from people, situations or places, the power of thought over action, 
communication with a household pet. If we share these with like- 
minded friends we feel like conspirators discussing something 
taboo that the thought police might catch. At best these phenomena 
might be labelled woolly, like 'psychic' experiences. We are lost 
because there is no system or structure to 'make sense' of an impor- 
tant part of our lives. They are not part of conventional wisdom. 

Viktor Schauberger was one of the first to put in a scientifically 
verifiable framework a study of natural processes set free from the 
constraints of rationalism. He has widened our understanding of our 
place in the world by describing a worldview of a natural science that 
includes these experiences without recourse to scientific, religious or 
philosophical dogma. By understanding how Nature works, we can 
begin to relate our experiences to a much wider and more exciting 
worldview. Rachel Carson, who is credited with having initiated the 
environmental movement with her book Silent Spring, was a brave 
woman for taking on the multinational corporations. Schauberger is 
all the braver for taking on our conventional worldview. 

There must be a fundamental change in the way we see the world 
(including our environmental policies), before change is possible. 
Have Viktor's warnings been vindicated? It is over 45 years since his 
untimely death, and much of what he prophesied has come to pass 
even earlier than he foresaw. There was some hope before Septem- 
ber 11,2001, that environmental awareness was gaining ground, if 
slowly. Recognition of the critical imbalances we have created in our 
atmosphere and of the urgent need to change our priorities from 
consumption to conservation was starting to spread. Now we seem 
to have backtracked a generation and we can't even agree to imple- 
ment the kind of cuts in carbon dioxide emissions that are essential 
to avoid catastrophic climate change. 


We feel that Schauberger's perceptions are a vital key to under- 
standing where our culture has gone wrong and that our future as a 
species depends on being able to reconnect with the natural 
processes he rediscovered. We shall, therefore, bring into twenty-first 
century relevance his views of how Nature works and where our 
society has gone wrong, to see what we can learn from his insights. 

Viktor has a singular way of deprecating our culture, as the fol- 
lowing comment on our conditioning reveals: 

Humanity has become accustomed to relate everything to itself 
(anthropocentrism). In the process we have failed to see that 
real truth is a slippery thing upon which the perpetually refor- 
mulating mind passes judgment almost imperceptibly. In the 
main all that is then left behind is whatever was drilled into 
our brain with much trouble and effort, and to which we cling. 
To give rein to free thought, to allow our minds to flow freely 
and unimpeded, is too fraught with complications. For this rea- 
son the activity arising from these notions inevitably becomes 
a traffic in excreta that stinks to high heaven, because its foun- 
dations were already decayed and rotten from the very begin- 
ning. It is no wonder, therefore, that everywhere everything is 
going wrong. Truth resides only in all-knowing Nature. 7 

Schauberger predicted that modern human culture's destruction of 
the creative energies of Nature would result in greater violence and 
depravity in society. If we were to pay heed to what Nature requires 
of us, would we witness a reversal of this observable deterioration, 
and a gradual coming back into balance of a human society that 
would eventually be able to live in tune with Nature? 

But as in our hubris we believe we are at the peak of material 
human achievement, there is a reawakening of the human spirit, 
and a great need is being reborn to reconnect with Nature, with our 
source. This book attempts to encourage and nurture this need. 

Towards a science of Nature 

The majority of people in the UK oppose the genetic modification 
of food because they know in their hearts it is against Nature. The 
policy is being driven by the commercial interests of big business 
supported by a compliant political climate. Above all, it is justified 


by a science with a materialist worldview that believes Nature exists 
to be manipulated and exploited for the imagined benefit of 
humanity. Accountability is apparently not an issue. 

The national debate on GM held in Britain in 2003 showed that 
most people are deeply disturbed by the arrogance of the view that 
Man can do anything he wants on this Earth. But they have no sci- 
ence to turn to for rebuttal. What is needed is a Science of Nature to 
supplant the misguided science presently taught in our schools and 
universities. We need to work with a holistic view of Nature as 
omnipotent on the Earth, whose laws govern us humans as well and 
which we flout at our peril — in brief, a Nature with which we must 
learn to cooperate with humility. 

What are these laws of Nature? How are we to know what is our 
place, and what is demanded of us? Viktor Schauberger excelled as 
a teacher of the science of Nature. He describes and illustrates, as 
few have done, how Nature works, with its marvellous and complex 
processes at the heart of the evolution of consciousness. 

Viktor Schauberger is known at present only to a small, holisti- 
cally-inclined audience that has a strong commitment to environ- 
mental issues, to organic growing or to the development of 
alternative energy sources. Much of the literature on Schauberger is 
sometimes difficult to follow for the less committed. This book 
draws on Callum Coats' seminal book on Viktor's work, Living Ener- 
gies. We hope that the less technical approach of our book will facil- 
itate for a broader audience how indispensable are Schauberger's 
insights if we wish to understand our present ecological predica- 
ment. The great ideological conflict of this new century will be 
between the very limited and flawed mechanistic/deterministic 
worldview and the holistic understanding of life as a wondrous, 
intimately interconnected and spiritual whole. 



An Alternative Worldview 

1. Viktor Schauberger's Vision 

Our natural world is essentially an indivisible unity, but we human 
beings are condemned to apprehend it from two different directions 
— through our senses (perception) or through our minds (concep- 
tual). A child just observes and marvels, but as our rational minds 
become trained we are taught to interpret what we see, usually 
through other people's ideas, in order to 'make sense' of our sensory 
experience. Both are forms of reality, but unless we are able to bring 
the two aspects meaningfully together, the world will present noth- 
ing but incomprehensible riddles to us. This, in fact, is the basic 
shortcoming of our present human society. It is the great weakness 
of the prevailing scientific orthodoxy. As Schauberger noted: 

The majority believes that everything hard to comprehend 
must be very profound. This is incorrect. What is hard to 
understand is what is immature, unclear and often false. The 
highest wisdom is simple and passes through the brain 
directly into the heart. 1 

Some of the pioneers of science were able to bridge this dichotomy. 
Their way was to immerse themselves so deeply in the world of pure 
observation and experience, that out of these perceptions the con- 
cepts would speak for themselves. 

Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) possessed this rare gift. As a 
result of this, more than anyone else of his time he foresaw, as early 
as the 1920s, the environmental crises in which we are now 
engulfed. Viktor's forebears had a long tradition of caring for the 
welfare of the natural forest and its wildlife in the Austrian Alps. 
Although he was born into a family that cherished unspoilt Nature, 
Viktor, like most pioneers, was the rebel amongst them. 

Born one of nine children, he seemed to get on well with his sib- 
lings. His father, nicknamed after the legendary giant 'Ruebesahl,' as 
he was 6' 8" tall, did not relate well to the young Viktor. He resented 
the young man rejecting his paternal advice to improve himself 
with a modern academic training. His brothers acquiesced with 
their father. The one to whom Viktor remained closest was his 


mother. But he told how both his parents believed in the healing 
power of water, and of their insight that the quality and transportive 
power of water in a stream was particularly strong on a cold night, 
and more so under a full Moon. 

Viktor was a dreamy child, but was endowed with an extraordi- 
nary quality of observation, a keen intellect, and evident intuitive and 
psychic abilities. As a boy he would spend hours by himself in the 
forests, exploring streams, watching the animals and studying the 
plants. He was able to experience first hand what he had first heard 
from his family, and more, about the life of the natural forest and its 
creatures. He had no interest in the academic path and declined the 
opportunity to go to forestry college. He did some more practical 
training instead, and served an apprenticeship under an older forest 
warden. Married young, Viktor moved to a post in a virgin forest 93 
miles (150 km) south into the mountains. Four weeks after his son 
was born, Viktor was drafted in 1914 into the Kaiser's army. 

After the war he quickly rose from junior forest warden to game- 
keeper and became the head warden of the forest and hunting 
domain in Brunnenthal/Steyerling owned by Prince Adolf zu 
Schaumburg-Lippe. In this large wilderness area, almost untouched 
by man, Schauberger was able to study how Nature works when left 
undisturbed. Here biodiversity was undamaged, with many mag- 
nificent trees, an abundance of wildlife, and unspoilt streams teem- 
ing with fish and other creatures. 

The water wizard 

Water was always Viktor's fascination. One day, accompanied by his 
foresters, he came to a remote upland plateau where there was a leg- 
endary spring that emerged from a dilapidated dome-like struc- 
ture. Schauberger ordered it to be pulled down for safety reasons. 
One of the older foresters then warned him that if the structure were 
removed the spring would dry up. Taking note of the old forester's 
advice, and as a verifying experiment, Schauberger requested that 
the structure be carefully dismantled, with each stone numbered 
and its place marked. When Viktor passed again some two weeks 
later, he noted that the spring had indeed dried up due to exposure 
to the Sun's rays. Immediately he ordered the structure to be care- 
fully rebuilt and a few days later the spring began to flow again. This 
taught him that water liked to flow in cool darkness. 


Viktor's abiding interest was to discover how to generate energy 
using Nature's own methods. He worked out how a trout is able to 
screw its way up a waterfall by hitching a ride on strong levitative 
currents, and using this principle, the first generator he developed 
was the 'trout turbine.' To perfect this he needed more precise infor- 
mation on how a trout is able to stand motionless in a fast moving 
current, and indeed how it can suddenly accelerate upstream. The 
above diagram illustrates this amazing phenomenon (Fig. 1.1). 

The trout is holding its station in mid steam where the water is 
coldest, densest and has most potential energy. Viktor studied the 
gills of the fish and found what he thought were guide vanes which 
would direct the water flow into a powerful backwards vortex cur- 
rent. Its shiny scales minimize friction with the water, but they also 
create scores more of little vortices that amplify the upstream 
counter current, particularly towards the tail, which cancel out the 
pressure on the fish's snout. A zone of negative thrust is created 
along the whole of the trout's body and so it stays in the same place. 
These counter currents can be increased by flicks of the tail, creat- 
ing negative pressure behind the fish. Flapping of the gills amplifies 
the vortices along its flanks, giving it a sudden push upstream. The 


Fig. 1.1. The stationary trout. 
The trout normally swims in the middle of the 
central current, where the water is densest and 
coldest. Its body displaces and compresses the 
individual water filaments causing them to 
accelerate. As their critical velocities are exceeded, 
vortices or countercurrents are formed along the 
rear part of the trout's body, providing a 
counterthmst to the current, allowing the trout to 
remain stationary in the fast flowing water. If it 
needs to accelerate, it flaps its gills, creating a 
further vortex train along its flanks, increasing the 
counterthmst upstream. 

faster the gills move the more oxygen-deficient water is expelled 
from the body. This combining with the free oxygen in the water, 
causes the water body to expand, with an effect on the fish similar 
to squeezing a bar of wet soap in your hand. 

Another experience that Viktor often quoted as significant for his 
growth in understanding, occurred when he had shot a chamois buck 
on a frosty night under the full Moon. The buck fell into a ravine and, 
attempting to retrieve it, Schauberger fell down a snow chute to the 
bottom. In the bright light of the Moon, he became aware of move- 
ment in the stream below where he stood. Some green logs were bob- 
bing up on the surface, then sinking to the bottom, as though they 
were dancing. And not only that, but a large stone began to gyrate at 
the bottom, and then came to the surface, where it was immediately 
surrounded by a halo of ice. Other stones also surfaced, and he saw 
that they were all egg-shaped. It seemed that no uneven or ragged 
stones would float in this way. Schauberger developed his ideas of dif- 
ferent forms of motion and shapes from these observations. 

Having seen how water could carry its greatest load on a cold, 
clear night, he made practical use of this observation. During the 
winter of 1918, the town of Linz was suffering a severe shortage of 
fuel as a result of the war when the draft animals had been com- 
mandeered. There was a small stream that ran through narrow 
gorges and which was considered unsuitable for transporting logs, 
but he wanted to try out his ideas using this stream. His offer to help 
being accepted by the authorities, he describes how he proceeded: 

I had observed that an increased water level after a thaw 
builds up sandbanks that are then partially dispersed when 
the water temperature drops during clear cool nights. I then 
waited for an increase in the strength of the water current. 
This takes place in the early hours of the morning, when it is 
coldest, and particularly at full Moon, although the volume of 
the water is apparently less due to its compression on cooling. 
I planned for the timber to be put in the stream under these 
conditions, and in one night 1600m 3 were brought down to 
the valley. 

Viktor had discovered that when water was at its coldest, it had much 
more energy that enabled it to carry more sediment, gouging out 
deposits of sand, and concluded that in these conditions it would be 


able to carry a greater weight of logs. This was a principle that 
enabled him to turn upside down the current theories of hydraulics, 
and particularly the methods of river and flood management. 

Log flumes 

Schauberger was looking for a way to demonstrate to others his ideas 
about movement in Nature, and to discuss them with technical 
experts and scientists. His opportunity came in 1922 when the owner 
of the forest and hunting reserve on which Viktor was a junior warden, 
Prince Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe, was looking for a way to avoid 
bankruptcy. (His wife, the Princess, had very expensive tastes.) After 
World War I there was a demand by the expanding building industry 
for timber, and inaccessible stands of mature trees were earmarked for 
felling. The timber flotation methods of the time were fairly crude, 
straight channels running down the valleys, which caused the logs 
enormous damage, many being good only for firewood. 

The Prince offered a prize for the construction of a flume to bring 
logs down from the remote areas, and Viktor eagerly submitted his 
plans. These were, however, rejected by the administrators of the estate 
as totally unworkable, as the proposed method went completely 
against accepted hydraulic principles. Through a chance meeting on a 
hunting expedition, the Princess asked Viktor what savings could be 
achieved through his method. On claiming that he could offer a cost of 
one schilling per lm 3 against the normal cost of 12 schillings per lm 3 
for flotation, she offered to have his salary trebled should he succeed, 
despite his lack of academic qualifications. The Prince, driving a hard 
bargain, made a condition that Viktor should build the flume at his 
own expense and that it had to deliver a minimum of 1,000m 3 daily. 

There was much scoffing by the experts who judged 
Schauberger completely mad, and who made malicious predictions 
of the outcome; as Viktor describes: 

The construction was completed after some four months. The 
great timbers were in position. The day before the inauguration 
I tried a test. An average sized log was put into the flume. It 
floated down for about 100 metres and then suddenly 
grounded on the bottom, causing the water behind to rise and 
overflow the flume. I saw the scornful faces of my workers, 
realized that I had miscalculated and felt discouraged. The log 


was taken out of the flume. I thought that there was too little 
water and too sharp a drop. I did not know what to do. So I sent 
my workers home so that I could quietly consider the problem. 

The curves of the flume were correct; of that there was no 
doubt. So what had gone wrong? I walked slowly along the 
flume until I came to the trap and the sorting basins, from 
which a further length of flume continued. The basins were 
full. I sat on a rock above the water in the Sun. 

Suddenly I felt something moving below my leather 
trousers. Jumping up I saw a coiled snake. I picked it up and 
threw it away; it fell into the basin and tried to get out, but the 
bank was too steep. As it swam back and forth I was amazed 
that it could swim so fast without fins. Observing it through 
my binoculars I saw its peculiar twisting movements in the 
clear water. Finally the snake reached the far bank. For some 
time I stood quietly and went over in my mind the snake's 
bodily movements of horizontal and vertical curves. Suddenly 
I understood how it had done it! 

The snake's movement was that of a spiral space-curve twisting like 
the horn of a Kudu antelope. Calling back his workers, he ordered 
the holding basin to be emptied and the log removed. He then gave 
instructions to attach thin wooden slats to the curved sides of the 
flume walls, which would act like the rifling in a gun barrel, and 
would make the water rotate anti-clockwise on left hand bends and 
clockwise at right hand bends. Promised double wages, they worked 
through the night, and the adjustments were completed in time for 
the opening in the morning. 

The inauguration of the flume was attended by the Prince and 
Princess, by the Chief Forestry Commissioner and a number of 
hydraulic specialists, the last ready to gloat over Viktor's humiliation. 
After greeting the royal couple and the head forester, he continued: 

I opened the lock, behind which my workers started to 
arrange the smaller logs in the water. Unnoticed, a heavier log 
about 3ft (90cm) in diameter went in with the others. The 
senior log master shouted,'We cannot have that one.' I gave a 
quick wave and the unwanted log floated high, towards the 
outflow. Quickly it created a blockage that raised the water 
level. No one said anything, staring at the log rising out of the 


water, waiting for the flume to overflow. Suddenly there was a 
gurgling noise. The heavy log swung first to the right, then to 
the left, twisting like a snake, its head high as it floated away 
quickly. A few seconds later the log slipped through the first 
curve and was gone. 

Schauberger's flumes followed the curves of the valley, with guide 
vanes mounted on the curves, making the water spiral along its 
axis. With the careful monitoring of temperature along the route, 
bringing in cold water where necessary, he found it was possible to 
float logs under conditions regarded as impossible, using signifi- 
cantly less water, and achieving very high delivery rates. Parts of his 
flumes can still be seen in Austria today. 

The flume at Steyrling was a great success, much to the chagrin 
of the observing hydraulic engineers who were so sure his crazy 
scheme would fail. Schauberger's fame quickly spread. Experts 
came from all over Europe to study the flume's construction. He was 
appointed State Consultant for Timber Flotation at a high salary. 
The academics were furious that he could give directives on techni- 
cal questions which he could not understand with his inadequate 
education, and that he was paid twice as much as any of them. In 
the crisis that followed, Viktor resigned, and accepted a job with one 
of Austria's largest building contractors for whom he built installa- 
tions all over Europe. If this has been his only accomplishment, Vik- 
tor Schauberger would still be known as the man who completely 
mastered the art of transporting timber by water. 

Water, source of life 

His painstaking and inspired studies of water were the source for a 
seminal paper that Schauberger wrote on 'Temperature and the 
Movement of Water.' 2 Central to these was the influence of minute 
differences in temperature, which are presently wholly ignored by 
modern hydraulics and hydrology. Natural, living, water, which is 
conventionally regarded as a homogenous substance, he showed to 
be composed of many strata or layers with subtle variations in tem- 
perature and electric charge which influence the water's motion, its 
form of flow and its physical properties. 

Schauberger saw water as a pulsating, living substance that ener- 
gizes all of life, both organic and inorganic. He called it 'the life blood 


of the Earth.' Whether as water, blood or sap (which are essentially 
water), it is the indispensable constituent of all life-forms, and its qual- 
ity and temperature is fundamental to health. When it is healthy it has 
a complex structure that enables it to communicate information, carry 
energy, nutrients and healing, to self-cleanse and discharge wastes. He 
believed that one of the causes of the disintegration of our culture is 
our disrespect for and destruction of water, the bringer of life, for in 
doing so we destroy life itself. Viktor also profoundly believed that our 
dangerous technologies produce poor water that has lost its energy 
and its ability to pulsate — and is effectively lifeless. This dead water 
produces inadequate nutrition, and Viktor believed that its regressive 
energies are responsible for degenerative diseases like cancer, for lower 
intelligence and for community turmoil. 

Natural forests (not the monoculture plantations of today) are 
the cradle of water and also the main source of oxygen for the 
planet. Their precipitate destruction, Schauberger predicted, would 
result in global warming, severe water shortage and the creation of 
deserts. He made brilliant observations of the way in which trees in 
a natural, diversified environment are biocondensers of energy 
(accumulating and storing energy from both Sun and Earth) — 
how the groundwater (man permitting) brings Earth's energy to the 
tree in order to balance the Sun's energy. 

Motion is crucial 

An understanding of motion may be the most important of 
Schauberger's discoveries. Our current technology uses the wrong 
form of motion. Our machines and processes channel agents such 
as air, water, other liquids and gases into the type of motion that 
Nature uses only to decompose and dissolve matter. Nature uses 
another form of motion for creating and rebuilding. Our technol- 
ogy's mode of motion creates chaos, noise and heat, bringing dis- 
ease to organisms and the breakdown of structures. Visualize if you 
will, what happens in an explosion — matter is torn apart, frag- 
mented and destroyed. Its effect is to create degraded energy. 
Through its dependence on the decomposing mode of motion our 
technology creates enormous energy pollution and entropy, danger- 
ously affecting the vital biodiversity and balance of our ecosystems. 
Our mechanical, technological systems of motion are nearly all 
heat- and friction-inducing, with the fastest movement at the 


periphery (as in a wheel), a form of motion that is disintegrative, 
noisy and inefficient; this is the way we generate our power — 
centrifugally. By contrast, Nature uses the opposite, centripetal, vorti- 
cal form of motion, moving from the outside to the inside with 
increasing velocity, which acts to cool, to condense, to structure, 
assisting the emergence of higher quality and more complex systems. 

Spirals are a basic form of motion in Nature, but Schauberger's 
recognition of the vortex (see p. 42) as the principal creative move- 
ment system in the Universe is at the core of his Eco-technology and 
the key to his valuable implosion research. From the tornado to 
plant growth, it is Nature's mechanism for transforming energy 
from one level to another (Fig. 1.2). 

Asked about our technology 'How else should it be done?' Viktor's 
answer was: 'Exactly in the opposite way that it is done today.' He saw 
that the potential for creating energy for human needs by replicating 
the in-winding motion of Nature was the way of the future. 

Fig. 1.2. Centrifugal and centripetal movement. 
Comparison between axial>radial 
(inside>outwards) motion, the way our current 
technology works, and radial>axial 
(outside>inwards) motion, Nature's way of 
generating creative energy. 


Temperature controls 

Another cornerstone of Viktor's ecotechnology is the importance of 
temperature in Nature's processes. Modern technology creates vast 
amounts of waste heat (entropy) which contribute to global warm- 
ing, especially in cities and industrial centres (carbon dioxide from 
burning fossil fuels being the principal source of global warming). 
Increasing heat will ultimately destroy life on Earth. Nature's cre- 
ativity, however, thrives on measured coolness. 

Most significantly, he showed how small variations in tempera- 
ture are as crucial to the healthy movement of water and sap as they 
are to the human blood. He identified in particular the importance 
for water of the temperature of +4°C (39°F), referred to physically 
and chemically as the 'anomaly point,' when water is at its densest 
and has the greatest vitality, health and energy content. 

In all forms of water, in trees and other living organisms, the 
temperature gradient (the upward and downward movement of 
temperature) is active. In the natural process of synthesis and 
decomposition, the temperature is either approaching (positive gra- 
dient) or moving away from (negative gradient) the anomaly point. 
Each form of gradient has its special function in Nature's great pro- 
duction; the positive (cooling) temperature gradient must play the 
principal role if evolution is to unfold creatively. We shall be looking 
at this in more detail in the appropriate chapters. 

Schauberger found that temperature changes according to certain 
patterns and cycles that activate life and death, bringing increase and 
decrease, decomposition and renewal. Temperature controls the 
innate energies that produce the pulsations that punctuate and con- 
trol all life's processes. These energy pulsations which at one moment 
dissociate or disconnect, and at another recombine both energy and 
matter, are the mechanism for creating the countless individualities 
and qualities that make up life as we know it. Viktor said that the 
cyclical change of temperature creates the conditions suitable for the 
evolution of new individual life forms or the renewal of existing ones. 


Viktor Schauberger recognized that Nature's evolutionary purpose 
is to facilitate the emergence of higher life forms, to promote greater 


complexity of interrelationships and to raise the level of conscious- 
ness of the higher life forms, all a consequence of the continual 
refinement of energies. 

Viktor showed that highly ordered systems lose their stability 
when their environment suffers deterioration. He predicted that a 
decrease of biodiversity in Nature would bring an increase in violence 
and a degeneration of spiritual qualities in the human community. 

We think of evolution in terms of technological development. 
But if one aspect of potentiality is developed at the expense of the 
others, you end up with an unbalanced person, or even with a mon- 
ster. This is one of the most important lessons our culture has to 
learn. It might well apply to the unregulated biotechnology indus- 
try. What level of crisis will be required to force us to rethink our 
priorities and change direction? 


Perhaps the most important of Schauberger's insights that we have 
to heed is the importance of balance in Nature. The nature of some 
attribute of an organism, its wholeness or unity is composed of two 
seemingly opposed qualities in resonant balance. Thus, for exam- 
ple, both egoism and altruism are necessary as human qualities, but 
for evolution to proceed, altruism must be more in the ascendant. 
Because our culture has emphasized the coarser qualities, our cre- 
ative evolution has been arrested, and we have attracted the darker 
energies of degeneration, with increasing disorder and violence as 
the outcome. 

All the qualities found in Nature have a coarser physical aspect 
that our worldview attracts, to the discouragement of higher, more 
subtle energies; we shall be looking at how this impinges on the 
environment as a whole. In this way Nature's balance is upset, the 
most obvious being the supremacy today of the more aggressive 
energies of humankind. 


Nature's methods of producing energy are silent, but inherently far 
more effective and powerful than our mechanical techniques, as 
Schauberger was to prove with his implosion machines that pro- 
duced prodigious amounts of power. The difference between the 


two forms of energy production is fundamental to the quality of any 
process in our world. 

Not only does this implosion technology produce much more 
energy than the 'explosive' methods currently employed, but it cre- 
ates no waste, pollution, global warming or other damage to Earth's 
fragile ecosystems. Schauberger invented a number of 'over-unity' 
machines that produced a substantial excess of power over input. 
These included means of propulsion for aircraft, submarines, and 
cars; different devices that produced power, coolness or heat for the 
home, and invaluable machines for making high quality springwa- 
ter from polluted water. Unfortunately the working models were 
destroyed at the end of the Second World War, and his detailed 
drawings are missing. 

His descriptions of these appliances have inspired a number of 
inventors searching for 'free energy' generation. It seems that no- 
one has quite succeeded in replicating one of Viktor's, but there are 
some promising devices ready to go into production. The main 
obstacles to their introduction include personal harassment from 
agents of the energy 'establishment,' the lack of imagination by 
politicians and investors, and the vested interests of the fossil fuel 
industries, whose lobbying of government is bent on delaying as 
long as possible the day when people will be able to gain their true 
independence by producing cheaply their own power needs at 
home, as Schauberger envisaged. 

The visionary 

What we have to take on board, as it were, is the extent to which the 
degraded energies of our present technologies are polluting the 
world, both from excess heat, but more particularly because they 
not only block or impede the natural productive and healing ener- 
gies, but actually encourage degeneration. We can reduce global 
warming by significant reductions in CO2 emissions. But we cannot 
hope for the long-term survival of humanity without ditching our 
current technology models for those that are wholeheartedly 
Nature-friendly. Schauberger shows us the way ahead. For example, 
ecotechnologies are being introduced into the fragile Himalayan 
ecosystems of Ladakh, as a means of securing economic self-suffi- 
ciency for a proud people who are losing their independence in the 
face of imposed economic exploitation from outside. 3 


Viktor Schauberger came from a background that was rare even 
a century ago. Several generations of his family had lived in the 
unspoilt Alpine forests. They understood many of Nature's laws. 
Viktor's refusal to go to college came from a fear of being indoctri- 
nated, as he believed he would lose both his intuition and his abil- 
ity to see the magical interconnections within Nature. His natural 
ability voluntarily to change levels of awareness was the key to his 
singular discoveries of how Nature works. He was able to enter a 
more refined state of consciousness, as when he describes how he 
let his awareness enter the flowing water in a stream, ready to bring 
back intuitions of what the water required for its health. 

This book is not about going back to some romantic past, or 
about discarding science as a discipline, or technology as a means 
of making our lives more effective. It is about, as Schauberger used 
to say, 'thinking an octave higher.' Viktor was a supremely capable 
scientist, an impeccable observer, a thorough researcher and an 
inspired inventor. He also predicted, seventy years ago, the climate 
change disasters that we are now experiencing, and the moral and 
spiritual collapse of our civilization. But he also, supremely, gave us 
the keys to reclaiming our heritage as true guardians of Nature and, 
as we shall see, showed us how to repair the damage we have done 
to our precious Earth. 


2. Different Kinds of Energy 

Subtle energies 

In the last 200 years, the application of increasingly complex tech- 
nologies has accelerated enormously, overwhelming the far more 
subtle energy systems of Nature, with dire consequences for us all. 
For while some will argue that these have brought benefits to 
many on the material level, the quality of life on the planet has 
seriously deteriorated, with severe damage to ecosystems and to 

No one explains, as convincingly as Schauberger, just how this 
has come about. He found that the energy our technology propa- 
gates is destructive of the evolutionary impulse in life forms, pre- 
cipitating a downward spiral in the quality of organisms, and in the 
human quality of life. Imagine trying to be creative in a steel mill 
or a slaughterhouse! The pride we hold for our Machiavellian 
machines that pour out incessant noise and heat is based on the 
mistaken belief that we represent the summit of evolution. 

Schauberger pointed out that, besides having the ego-centred 
need to control, modern science sees only the surface of things. 1 Its 
reductionist (everything in separate compartments) and material- 
istic agenda prevents an understanding of the energetic processes 
which, as Schauberger demonstrated, are essential for any material 
substance to come into being; in the same way that an idea or 
impulse must precede any human action. These subtle energies are 
essential to the increasing quality Nature demands in her evolu- 
tionary process. When these are subdued, only deterioration can 
result, which inevitably also affects human aspirations. So energy 
is cause, form is effect. An understanding of any creative process is 
impossible without true awareness of subtle energies. 

Schauberger's worldview 

Viktor Schauberger took the ancients' view of the Sun as the male 
inseminator of Earth to create bountiful Nature. But, also like the 


ancients, he saw Nature as the mirror of the Divine. Following 
Goethe's eighteenth century view, he conceived of God as a kind of 
'Divine Weaver' of the unfolding tapestry of Evolution. It was 
through this vision that Viktor found common ground also with the 
Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner. 

However, he saw the Earth and Nature also as part of a much 
larger cosmos. The visible Sun is but the kernel, the only visible 
part, of a much larger sun that, with its radiative body, stretches to 
the very limits of the solar system. The Earth is within this sun, 
bathed by the solar wind, spiraling with its sister planets like organs 
within the same body. Our own bodies too are but kernels of a much 
broader, invisible self that extends around us, and with which we 
can feel another's energy. 

He was influenced by Theosophical thinking that conceives 
the Universe as a holistic system, and criticized contemporary 
thinking that cannot accept our subservience to Nature; he said 
that this limitation of awareness prevents us accepting our place 
in the Universe, of which the consciousness we call Nature is a 
part. This holistic view of all creation is aided by the idea of a 
hierarchy of energies, from the very finest that are inconceivable 
to humans, down to the coarse, material energies which dominate 
contemporary society. Schauberger would refer to these different 
levels as 'octaves,' but we shall describe them as 'dimensions' or 

Why the mystery? 

His scientific contemporaries misunderstood Viktor Schauberger 
because his frame of reference was the subtle energies in Nature, 
and they hadn't a clue what he was on about. His heightened sensi- 
tivities enabled him to be aware of phenomena more subtle than 
most of us are able to perceive. As this was his modus operandi, we 
need to take a look at this whole question of energies. 

Firstly, we need to accept that the worldview of our contempo- 
rary culture is that of the material world; that is its reference 
point. We don't learn about energies at school or at college, other 
than the purely mechanical or electrical. Any phenomenon that is 
nonmaterial poses a difficulty for conventional science, for it can- 
not be described in a manner that is familiar to its discipline. 
Thoughts and emotions are energies we all experience, but how 


do we study them in the laboratory, other than their physical 

The various forms of effective energy medicine such as 
acupuncture, homeopathy, cranial osteopathy (and others) are not 
understood by orthodox medicine and, for that reason, are gener- 
ally dismissed and usually opposed. It is not sufficient to see that 
acupuncture works; or that most people are intuitive. If you can't 
explain it, then modern knowledge says it must be bogus. We are not 
talking about religion, beliefs or values, but about things that actu- 
ally happen on a nonmaterial level. 

Earlier cultures acknowledged the tremendous power of imma- 
terial life-energies. The life force (Ch'i) that moves along the energy 
meridians in the human body was recognized by the Chinese sev- 
eral thousand years ago. To correct bioenergetic imbalances or 
blockages in the body, they developed acupuncture at that time, a 
treatment still widely used in China and now also in many Western 
countries by accredited practitioners and by some more open- 
minded physicians. 

While the life sciences, for the most part, are still imprisoned in 
the mechanistic view of life, the physical sciences are undergoing a 
revolution. The study of sub-atomic phenomena has led to the 
development of quantum physics, in which the environment 
becomes unpredictable. The boundaries between energy and mat- 
ter become blurred, so that the smallest constituents of matter — 
particles and electrons — are interchangeable. Matter becomes 
energy, which leads to the conclusion that everything is energy. 2 
Sadly the rigid boundaries that have developed between different 
scientific disciplines have as yet denied these insights to the life sci- 
ences and to medicine. 

As there is nowhere intellectually respectable to slot in these 
'anomalous' phenomena, new labels have to be found, like 'energy 
medicine' or 'alternative science.' Schauberger was a pioneer of 
alternative science, which pushes the boundaries of what is worthy 
of study beyond the merely physical. 

Degrees of energy 

We know the ways in which energy manifests itself. We can see that 
flowing water is energetic. We can see that energy is associated with 
creating clouds. Energy is active in an engine combusting gasoline 


or petrol. But what is its essence, a process that always seems to be 
connected with movement? 

When we look up at the fluffy clouds on a summer's day, we 
may wonder what they're made of. So wispy and light, each cloud 
may contain hundreds or thousands of tons of tiny individual 
droplets of water, invisible and in constant motion. A collection 
of minute, invisible, weightless things becomes large and visible. 
It's a question of density. Our entire universe forms in the same 

A material object consists of billions of atoms, each composed 
of sub-atomic particles, each of which is a vortex of energy. 
Gyrating around each other in vortices, the sub-atomic particles 
form heavier particles of energy that become denser, eventually 
slowing down to the point where they may become visible or even 

Water is a substance that appears in different forms according to 
its compactness. In its solid state, as ice, its atomic particles move 
the most slowly. As the ice melts, they move faster, need more space 
to gyrate or vibrate, creating the less dense form, liquid water. 
Heated up, the particles accelerate, requiring more space, and 
become steam or the invisible gas, water vapour. Their state and 
appearance differ, depending on their expression of energy as 
movement or vibration, and its rate of motion is called its fre- 
quency. The principles of vibration and frequency determine the 
countless energy forms in our world. 

The material substance we see is the result of energy setting 
up a visible 'blur' by vibrating in and out of a physical state, with 
a frequency and density that makes it seem like a static whole. 
The forms create an illusion of being solid and static, caused by 
countless particles constantly accelerating and then slowing 
down enough for us to see them as matter. When you see that all 
material objects are composed of atoms and particles in constant 
motion, it becomes possible to understand that everything is 

The vortex as the key to creative evolution 

The vortex is a window between different qualities or levels of 
energy. Black Holes can be thought of as vortices linking differ- 
ent parts of our universe or even different universes. The vortex 


and spiral became hallmarks for Viktor Schauberger, as for him 
they were the key to all creative movement. As we shall demon- 
strate later, the vortex is most clearly seen with water, which it 
uses to purify and energize itself, introducing finer energies to 
wipe clean the bad energies of the water's previous memory of 

One could use the metaphor of a musty room that feels stale 
and unwelcoming. Once sunlight and fresh air are allowed to pen- 
etrate, the unpleasant atmosphere is quickly transformed. It is a 
natural law that the more refined energy always prevails over the 
coarser. 3 As Viktor Schauberger demonstrated, Nature's evolu- 
tionary imperative is continually to refine and to create greater 
complexity and diversity, the vortex being the key process in this 

Energies as creative process 

We normally think of energy as the power to do work, as to be able 
to run across a busy street. But thought is also energy. For the 
human, creativity is dependent on thought. Between having an idea 
and our wish to see it fulfilled lies a complex creative process. 

If I want to make an apple pie, there is first the idea, then the 
planning, translating this through visualization and then finally 
the physical creation of the pie. This is much more important 
than we realize. From the simplest task like tying your shoelace, 
to the complex challenge of becoming a tennis champion, the bet- 
ter the 'mind pictures' of how we are going to perform the 
required actions, the more successful will be the outcome. The 
force, the impulse, which is the motivator for us to create, is an 
unseen energetic process. 

Viktor Schauberger shows us that we need to think of energy in 
Nature as the potential for creation, not as a mechanical working 
process. He criticized our present view of how Nature works as 
untenably mechanistic, which he said this is one of the main rea- 
sons why we're in such a mess. Our culture thinks of Nature as being 
like a big machine that can be manipulated and its resources 
extracted for our own greed, rather than a creative system that has 
a purpose. 

Productive energies make it possible for life forms to arise that 
are appropriate to the needs of the environment. It is as if Nature 


has a blueprint for what is required for a balanced and diversified 
community. For example, a healthy river that is carrying energized 
water will create on its banks trees that it needs to keep it cool and 
protect its vitality. 

James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis recognized this creativity by 
naming the Earth 'Gaia' after the classical Earth goddess. They 
described how the Earth behaves like an organism, and how the 
conditions for life on our planet are maintained within very narrow 
limits, in spite of the enormous variation in the Sun's radiation, and 
the effect of harmful cosmic rays. This seems to work in a similar 
way to the self-regulating system in the human body that maintains 
the blood temperature in the narrow range essential for health 
(around +37°C/98.4°F). A mechanistic scientist would insist that 
this is just a computer function, but computers don't operate with 
purpose and meaning. 

Spiritual science 

To say that purpose and meaning are more to do with belief or 
religion is, I believe, a mistaken view. Purpose can be ascribed to 
living systems. Watch a community of bees at work, and there is 
a significant purpose! Meaning is usually associated with sen- 
tient beings. Being creatively human is difficult without a sense 
of meaning in one's life. Schauberger didn't talk much about God, 
but as we shall see he recognized in the extraordinary fecundity 
of Nature, and indeed in all of her processes, an indisputable 
sense of meaning and purpose. If it makes more sense to you, call 
it 'spiritual' science. 

It is not necessary to postulate a God that created every living 
thing and who is behind all the subtle energies in Nature. Proba- 
bly the idea, found in so many religions, of God as a being like 
superman whose support can be called on for your little or big 
power plays is in much the same category as that of regarding 
Earth's resources as private property for exploitation. The concept 
of co-creation — that all of creation participates in and con- 
tributes to the creative process, is often more acceptable to the 
thoughtful searcher. 

We are clearly influenced by the beliefs of the culture into which 
we are born. The worldview of contemporary Western society rep- 
resents an enormous shift away from what has been the norm of 


human experience over its half million or so years on the Earth. The 
clearest modern examples of a more 'normal' worldview are the 
Buddhist beliefs, the Celtic, and those of the indigenous peoples 
worldwide who share the idea that the Great Spirit (or God) inspires 
and inhabits the rocks, the waters, and all living things. 

In our detachment from the complete or 'real' world, we assume 
that it is normal to divide different 'bits' of knowledge into separate 
compartments or 'disciplines.' In fact it is quite abnormal. For tradi- 
tional peoples, there are no barriers between cosmology, science 
and the spiritual, for in the interconnectedness of all Nature there is 
no separation; all is One. 

Different dimensions 

Viktor Schauberger didn't write about hierarchies of energy, but we 
know that he subscribed to Theosophical or Eastern concepts of 
energies, so we shall give an outline of these in order to understand 
where he was coming from. 

Our physical spacetime dimension contains that spectrum of 
energy that vibrates at a rate low enough to support material form. 
This Third Dimension or domain has length, breadth and height, 
but it also has the three components by which humans may be con- 
scious. These are: the physical, neutral energy through which the 
material world exists; the emotional, negative energy by which we 
receive sensory information; and the mental, positive energy by 
which we project our beliefs and personalities into the world. (NB: 
The terms negative and positive are used not in a qualitative sense, 
but more in the electrical sense of polarity.) 

Our daily lives demonstrate the differences between these ener- 
gies. The mental is the most changeable; it is harder to change our 
feelings, and the dense, physical form is almost impossible to 
change. If we move into a lower dimension, we lose one aspect of 
consciousness, and if we move higher, we gain one. Moving from the 
third to the second dimension, we lose the ability to generate origi- 
nal thought. Moving from the third to the fourth, we add the ability 
to mould time. 4 

In terms of the pure physicality of our three-dimensional world, 
our consciousness places and senses each lower dimension as being 
external to the body, although, paradoxically, it is both within and 
without, and permeated by the higher one (see Fig. 2.1, next page). 5 


On to infinitely 
higher frequencies 

on ... 

3D contains 2D + 1D 

Our Veil' 

2D Veil- 

On to infinh 

Frequencies too 
high for physical 

Our 3D span of 
frequencies called 

Frequencies too 
low for physical 

Fig. 2.1. Different dimensions or 
levels of existence. 

Each dimension has a 'veil' at its upper limit 
which renders higher levels inaccessible. To a 
lesser extent someone of a 'lower' state of 
consciousness may be unaware of another in a 
'higher state.' 

Intuitive or inspired creativity, the level of expanded con- 
sciousness sometimes reached by inventors or by people of great 
vision, belongs to the fifth and sixth dimensions. It is apparent 
that Viktor Schauberger had the ability to tap into this reservoir of 
inspiration. All subtle dimensions are present on Earth, interpen- 
etrating the third dimension, though we are not normally con- 
scious of them. 6 The other animals or humans with raised 
consciousness have a wider range of perception. A close relation- 
ship with a dog, cat or horse often reveals instances where the ani- 
mal is aware of a nonphysical 'presence' which is beyond our own 
awareness or which may be a spirit presence. If we lower our con- 
sciousness, we feel less ability to control our own lives. If all our 
three components of consciousness are being fully used, then we 
can experience the full potential of being human, which is the gift 
of free will. 

We shall not discuss in detail here the important energy shifts 
that are occurring on our planet at this time. In line with the idea 
that God, or the All-That-Is, seeks constant evolution or expansion 
of consciousness, ancient teaching has long predicted that the 
Earth and all its inhabitants would graduate from the third to the 


fourth dimension in these times. Human society is becoming 
increasingly polarized between the materialist-based (third 
dimension) power structures that are reluctant to release their 
control, and those who wish to participate in a fairer and more 
spiritually based society. 7 

Changing octaves 

When Viktor Schauberger said,'We must think an octave higher,' (if 
we are to get out of this mess), one tends to think he means being 
less taken in by the physical view of life, and become more aware of 
its subtle aspects. While that is true, he did propose an interesting 
way of illustrating the concept of how a particular kind of energy 
can be taken up one octave. On the face of it, the following may be 
considered contradictory, but a more interesting view is to see them 
as complementary or reciprocal energies an octave apart, one a 
development of the other (like thesis and antithesis), which, when 
combined are reconciled and become a unity: 8 

lower octave 

higher octave 




- unity 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 




(= unity) 

The second column, the 'antitheses,' being more refined, have the 
potential to contribute to creative evolution by being able to bridge 
the gap between the idea and manifestation. They are, if you like, 
endowed with special vibrational energies and powers. 

Callum Coats, in translating some of these more difficult concepts 
from Viktor's German terms, coined his own to describe the different 
forms of subtle energies from the fourth and fifth dimensions, which 


collectively he called 'ethericities.' By these he meant the bioelectric, 
biomagnetic, catalytic, high-frequency, vibratory, super-potent ele- 
ments of quasi-material qualities: 

These ethericities are further categorized as 'fructigens,' 
'qualigens' and 'dynagens.' They respectively represent those 
subtle energies whose function is the enhancement of fruit- 
fulness (fructigens), the generation of quality (qualigens) and 
the amplification of immaterial energy (dynagens). According 
to their function or location these may be female or male in 
nature. There are thus female fructigens and male dynagens, 
for example. 9 

We shall be using these terms from time to time where they are 


3. The Attraction and 
Repulsion of Opposites 

The Sun as a fertilizing entity 

We all know that sexual reproduction requires insemination of the 
female by the male but, according to Viktor Schauberger, the Earth 
works on the same principle. From Nature's point of view, this starts 
with the Sun. Throughout nearly all of humanity's time on this planet, 
the Earth has been regarded a sacred being, the Great Mother. The Sun 
held an equally significant place in our forebears' worldview. Most of 
the ancient cultures regarded the Sun as the primary, masculine deity, 
fertilizing the Earth in order to create life. The eighteenth century 
thinker, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe referred to Earth's creative spirit 
as the Eternally Female' and the 'All-uplifting' (or levitating). 

Viktor Schauberger uses explicit sexual terms to explain this vital 
natural process. He talks of the Sun impregnating Mother Earth in 
order to create the incalculable number of different life-forms that 
inhabit this planet. The Sun behaves very much as a living body. It is 
known to pulsate rhythmically, its surface expanding and contracting 
3km (1.8 miles) every 160 minutes. Its life-giving energies warm the 
atmosphere and penetrate deep into the ground to inseminate the 
elements and substances of the Earth (the sleeping princess). The 
beneficial UVc rays 1 which the ozone layer allows through, have to 
decelerate in order to unite with the receptive and passive female 
energies rising inside the Earth; these slower energies have to accel- 
erate, for fertilization can take place only if the two resonate with a 
sympathetic rate of vibration (see Chapter 4). 

All of life, from the gross material to the ethereally subtle, evolves 
through the interaction of male and female, positive and negative, 
energies. Each polarity has a particular manner of expression, the 
downwardly-radiating solar energy meeting the Earth at right angles 
to the energies of the Earth ranged in a layer below the surface (see 
Fig. 3.1). Their properties and potentialities are opposite, but comple- 
mentary, to each other. The manner in which these polarized energies 


Fig. 3.1. Cosmic fertilization. 
Schauberger saw the fertilization of Earth by the 
Sun as a similar process to human fertilization. 
The Earth responds to the Sun's energy by 
releasing propagating energies (the concentric 
circles) which become more developed and 
complex as evolution proceeds. 

interact alternate between attraction and repulsion, which sets up a 
pulsation which will vary according to the season. 

In winter when the Sun's energy has the most blue and ultravio- 
let light and the Earth is passive, with low temperatures in the cold 
winter sunlight, the vegetation is dormant and much animal life 
hibernates. It is then that fertilization, reproduction and growth are 
at a minimum, but the solar energies continue to penetrate deep into 
the Earth to awaken the embryonic female energies lying far below 
the surface. This union produces the prolific growth of springtime. 

In spring and summer however, when the Sun's radiation 
becomes relatively stronger, the balance between the ultraviolet and 
the infrared shifts towards the red end of the spectrum. This awak- 
ens the Earth, whose energy interacts with the Sun's high-frequency 
energy, producing a third kind of energy, which is dynamic growth. 
Viktor Schauberger saw this as the discharged precipitates of 
higher, bipolar subtle energy. In the summer months the solar ener- 
gies fuse with their female opposites in the higher strata near the 


surface of the Earth. This repeated process of impregnation results 
in an almost continuous flow of fertile energies emanating from 
deep in the Earth to stimulate burgeoning growth. 

Viktor grouped almost all the known elements and their com- 
pounds, with the exception of oxygen and hydrogen, under the gen- 
eral classification of 'female.' The exceptions were silver, zinc and 
silicon, which were considered to have paternally-oriented charac- 
teristics, while gold, copper and limestone were regarded as more 
maternal (these will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 17). 
Schauberger used the term 'carbones' for all these elements, (the 
extra 'e' meaning more than just 'carbon'), because of the prevalence 
of various sorts of carbonous matter in the multitude of living 
organisms created in the body of Mother Earth. 

The Sun's energy, of course, is regarded as male, and Viktor saw 
oxygen as a lower form of solar energy. Together, the role of the Sun 
and its assistant oxygen is to fertilize these female, propagative 
energies, the Sun being responsible for all of life, and oxygen for 
organic growth and development. To hydrogen, Viktor gave a spe- 
cial role, as the carrier substance of both oxygen and carbone (see 
Fig. 3.2 above). From a detached view, far outside the atmosphere, 
our planet, composed of carbones and fertilized by oxygen, is 
indeed floating in the hydrogen gas ocean of space. 

The words 'matter' and 'material,' both have their root in the 
Latin word mater, meaning mother, which supports the idea that 
physical substance is feminine in nature. Thus all the physical ele- 
ments (except for oxygen and hydrogen) can be seen as the mater- 
nal progenitive constituents of 'Mother-Earth.' Viktor Schauberger 
visualized all physical structures and all new living entities coming 
into being through the union between these 'mother-substances' 
and the inseminating agent of oxygen. 


Viktor Schauberger used to call polarity Nature's engine. He once 
described the harmonious interplay of the attraction and repulsion 
of polarized atoms as 'the dance of creation.' Electricity depends on 
the positive and negative charge of electrons. Magnetism expresses 
the polarities of attraction and repulsion. Polarities also apply in 
biological terms, of course, where balance is achieved between con- 
trasting qualities, and of course between different sexes. 

Fig. 3.2. Hydrogen symbol. 

Hydrogen as the 'carrier' of both carbone and 



Without the attraction and repulsion of atoms there would be no 
water, no plants, nor chemical compounds. The mutual attraction of 
2 x H and 1x0 gives birth to the marvel of water. 

We are more familiar with the terms 'positive' and 'negative' than 
'male' and 'female' in scientific contexts; as, for example, with elec- 
tricity. Of course, positive and negative in this sense are not judg- 
mental terms, but opposite poles. Schauberger felt that to use the 
terms masculine and feminine was more in keeping with Nature, 
which he saw as a living organic system. 

Opposites working towards balance 

We tend to think of Nature as being chaotic. The reverse is true. 
Schauberger discovered that Nature operates according to very 
strict laws. One of the most important is that concerned with the 
balance between energy polarities, each of which has its particular 
manner of expression. Masculine and feminine together make up a 
complete human being; one cannot exist without the other, and 
each needs the other to be whole. You might think that to be in bal- 
ance, masculine and feminine energies need to be about 50/50, as 
they nearly are with the distribution of the human sexes. 

For the last three thousand years or so human society has func- 
tioned in a predominantly masculine mode and is now quite out of 
balance. If you consider masculine energy to be represented by 
rationality, concern with the physical, forceful, expansive and indi- 
vidualistic; and the feminine by a tendency to be inclusive, intuitive, 
connecting and compassionate — then most will agree we need a 
swing of the pendulum towards the latter. 

The natural law about balance is that it must be weighted 
towards the feminine for creative growth to proceed. Otherwise 
growth (in terms of higher quality) is arrested, and degeneration 
takes place. This applies to all the qualities, like: 

matter and energy or spirit 
chaos and order 
yang and yin 

positive and negative (not in judgmental terms, more electrical) 
egoism and altruism 

quantity and quality (a confusion of our present society) 


And then in the more technical areas of life-building energies which 
we will cover in the relevant chapters: 

gravitation and levitation 
electricity and magnetism 
oxygen and carbones 
centrifugence and centripetence 

negative temperature gradient and positive temperate gradient 

What is the correct proportion by which the negative should domi- 
nate? Ancient Chinese society was very much taken up with these 
questions, and they believed the ratio of the correct balance was 
three-fifths (60%) to two-fifths (40%). Viktor Schauberger, who 
worked very intuitively, particularly on the temperature gradients 
in water, came up with two-thirds to one-third (66.7%). Callum 
Coats, who worked with Viktor's son Walter, a mathematician and 
physicist, related the proportion to the sacred geometric ratio of 4> 
(phi) which is 1.618, which gives the negative share of 61.8%. 

The interaction and combination of opposites is found through- 
out all natural processes. It is true of heat and cold. The crucial 
interplay of heat and cold is found in many life-forms. Some types 
of fruit and seeds cannot germinate properly unless they have been 
exposed to frost. Brussels sprouts are best after the first frost! 
Growth is dependent on the right combination of heat and cold. 

There is, however, no such thing as stable equilibrium, which 
would bring immobility and uniformity with which evolution 
would be impossible. Development and evolution in the dynamic 
Universe depend on an inherent imbalance, since movement is 
always occurring somewhere between one extreme and the other. 

Gravity and levity 

Gravity is recognized as a powerful physical force in the Cosmos. 
However, Viktor Schauberger demonstrated that its opposite, levity, 
is tremendously important in Nature. That levity is not acknowl- 
edged by conventional science presumably has to do with its being 
one of these more subtle energies which are anathema to the reduc- 
tionist mindset. Without levitation, fish would have great difficulty 
swimming upstream in a strong current, and we would not have 
majestic trees reaching for the heavens; only ground-hugging 


species. 2 Levitation force may indeed be related to these female sub- 
tle energies spiralling upwards to the Earths surface in their desire 
for fertilization. 

Levitation has much greater potential power than gravity, much 
as suction does over pressure. Schauberger used this to great effect 
in his implosion machines, as we shall see later. Levitation can best 
be described as the life-force present in all healthy living things, 
particularly the more youthful, which gives a feeling of lightness 
and of relative weightlessness. It gradually weakens with age, so that 
the elderly become conscious of the weight of their bodies and the 
greater difficulty of movement. When this levitational force with- 
draws, so too does the life-force of the body. 


4. Nature's Patterns and Shapes 

The essence of the Gaia principle is that all life is interconnected. 
Nature is a conscious system in which all phenomena or happen- 
ings affect everything in their environment — the micro-environ- 
ment for a small incident, or the whole world in the case of a major 
event. Life forms in Nature respond to each other by means of res- 
onance; you might call it 'Gaia's glue.' When you say someone has 
'good' or 'bad vibes,' you're talking the language of resonance; flow- 
ers attracting insects by their colour and scent, our response to cer- 
tain kinds of music, the practice of feng shui in the home; monks 
chanting, bees humming. 

Resonance is the language of communication and response. It is 
how energetic information is transferred from one object to 
another. It is also the mechanism of harmony. For example, the 
organs and cells in the human body vibrate each at its specific fre- 
quency, and in the healthy body they resonate in harmony like the 
different instruments of an orchestra. Water, as the principal con- 
stituent of and the bringer of life to all organisms, is the most pow- 
erful carrier of resonance. 

Sound as resonance 

Every musician knows that a tuning fork of the note C struck in a 
concert hall will make any number of C tuning forks respond in the 
same space. When you rub your finger round the rim of a wine 
glass, its note will sound. If a singer finds this note, the glass will 
resonate in sympathy, or even shatter if the vibration becomes too 

Sound is probably the most ancient form of resonance in the 
human experience. Jericho was reputedly destroyed by destructive 
sound resonances. There are accounts in oral traditions of how early 
societies, such as the ancient Egyptian, the Tibetan and the Inca 
employed the use of sound to levitate enormous blocks of stone 
used in their buildings. Music itself is more than a paradigm of 
Nature's resonances. For millennia people have sung and played 
music to their crops, their lovers and their children. Schauberger 


describes how the Alpine farmers while stirring the fertilizing liq- 
uid would sing into it (see p. 230). 

Callum Coats cites: 

Research carried out by Dr John Diamond in the field of 
behavioral kinesiology (BK), yields some interesting 
insights. 1 A member of the International Academy of Preven- 
tive Medicine, Dr Diamond found that while the deltoid mus- 
cle of a healthy adult male can normally resist a force of 
40-451bs, its strength is reduced to 10 — 151bs through the 
negative effect of certain types of rock music, such as heavy 
metal and hard rock. 2 

In contrast to a more natural rhythm, where the beat 
emulates that of the heart, with emphasis on the first beat, 
i.e. DA-da-da or 'LUB dup rest,' as he puts it, in the above 
type of music this emphasis is reversed, i.e. da-da-DA, which 
conflicts with the body's natural pulsation and in poetry is 
known as an 'anapestic beat.' As Dr.Diamond states: 'one of 
the characteristics of the anapestic beat is that it is stopped 
at the end of each bar or measure. Rock music that has this 
weakening effect appears to have this stopped quality; it is as 
if the music stops and then has to start again, and the 
listener subconsciously "comes to a halt" at the end of each 
measure. The anapestic beat is the opposite of the dactylic or 
waltz like beat, which is DA-da-da, and in which there is an 
even flow.' 3 

Dr Diamond further asserts that: 

these forms of music and unnatural rhythms cause switching 
in the brain's responses, which induces 'subtle perceptual dif- 
ficulties' that may well manifest themselves in children as 
decreased performance in school, hyperactivity and restless- 
ness; in adults as decreased work output, increased errors, 
general inefficiency, reduced decision-making capacity on the 
job,... in short, the loss of energy, for no apparent reason. 


Fig. 4.1. Sonorous figure. The photographs show a simple sonorous figure taking shape under the action of crystal oscillators. 
Steel plate 31x31 cm; thickness 0.5 mm; frequency 1560cps. The material scattered on the plate is calcined sand. 

Thus a given physical structure is created by an idea dependent on 
a particular frequency level or pattern of vibrations or resonances, 
higher vibrations producing higher forms and vice versa. 

As we survey the world around us today this is precisely what 
appears to be happening — the quantitative thrust of our technol- 
ogy and ideology is pressing downwards towards uniformity, to a 
vibrationless state, which is equivalent to zero energy and quality 
(see Fig. 5.1, p. 78). Thus species after species is disappearing sim- 
ply because the prevailing creative energy pool available for quali- 
tative evolution is absent. If we may imagine that all that can be 
preserved is what remains, we forget that Nature has her own urge 
to proceed with evolution. 

What is required of us is to purge our technology's production 
of so much debased energy. This would create positive feedback 
into human consciousness, raising its level, which would produce 
an outflow of positive, creatively potentiated energy, creating a 
swing towards the negative or feminine in society (see Chapter 3, 
p. 52). 

An urgent swing from carbon-based energy production to 
renewable sources is vital if global warming is gradually to level 
off. Schauberger believed that this would help restore the energy 
balance towards Nature's need for dynamic evolution. But it is not 
the whole answer; only a radical change of consciousness so that 
we recognize our sacred role as part of Nature and begin to follow 
her laws can bring about a new way ahead for Nature and the 

Resonance is about qualities 

As we saw in Chapter 2, all matter, though it may look solid and 
stationary, is based on sub-atomic particles that are always in 
motion. 4 The velocity of this motion determines its vibratory rate; 
this and the type and size of the object contribute to its vibrational 
frequency. A piece of wood, and each of the organs in our bodies 
have different resonant frequencies; planet Earth has its own — a 
frequency of 7.83Hz (Hertz). Every thing, both animate and 
apparently inanimate has its own vibrational or resonant fre- 
quency that can be enhanced by sympathetic vibrations, or 
harmed by destructive. 

There is increasing evidence of the harmful effects on human 


health from the ceaseless bombardment of the body's very sensi- 
tive, electrically charged cells by the veritable salad of electromag- 
netic emissions from high-tension cables, radio, television, radar, 
microwave transmitters, etc. 

A very tragic example of this was publicized by the media in the 
summer of 2001. 5 The navies of several countries, notably the US 
and Britain, have developed sonar technology for hunting sub- 
marines. This involves using massive blasts of sound up to 230 deci- 
bels which have been blamed for several mass killings and 
strandings of marine mammals, notably in the Bahamas in 2000 
when at least seventeen Cuvier's beaked whales are known to have 

Post mortem examination showed that sonar killed them 
through resonance, a process in which air bubbles in water can 
amplify sound waves by up to 25 times. When whales dive the air is 
forced out of their lungs into the tiny air spaces around the brain. 
Harmful resonance in these air spaces is believed to cause massive 
tissue damage and hemorrhaging, so that injuries can occur at 
much lower sound levels and over a much larger area than is 
presently acknowledged. 

The rules that the US navy scientists follow are based on old- 
fashioned physical science which puts the safe noise level below 1 80 
decibels, and the safe distance below 2.2 km (1.4 miles). There is 
now evidence that resonance effects could injure whales up to 100 
km (62 miles) away. 

Plants have perception and memory 

Cleve Backster was a former CIA interrogator who trained police in 
the use of the polygraph, or lie detector. One of their techniques was 
the use of 'threat to wellbeing' to evoke emotionality in suspects. In 
a spontaneous experiment, he attached the electrodes of the instru- 
ment to a plant. In considering what a plant would regard as a 
threat, he thought of applying a burning match to a leaf. Without 
even moving, only his thought alone triggered a strong response in 
the plant. 6 

Subsequent experiments, which were then widely repeated by 
different researchers, showed that plants are able to communicate 
or 'resonate' their shocked or pleasurable experiences to one 
another. Backster describes how he tried to block whatever signals 


were being passed between plants with a variety of complex 
screens, without success, suggesting that their signals are outside 
our electromagnetic spectrum. One of the hazards of this research 
is that unless the researcher is truly aware of his/her own emo- 
tional states, these can confuse the results. Perhaps every scientist 
who wishes to produce 'objective' results should go on a course to 
make him/her more aware of their prejudices! There is probably 
no such thing as truly objective research. (The same could be said 
for anyone whose work brings them into a role influential with 

Backster's best known experiment excluded the human factor. 
Live brine shrimps were dumped in boiling water automatically 
at pre-determined intervals, near the plants which reacted 'emo- 
tionally' each time the massacre took place. Not only do plants 
respond as if they had a nervous system, but they also exhibit a 
capacity for memory. As we shall see later, water also has this 
memory facility. With specially adapted equipment, 'emotional' 
reactions have also been monitored from amoebas, blood sam- 
ples and cell cultures. Experimenting with fertilized eggs, it was 
found that when one egg was broken others, even in the next 
room, responded with shock. 

Societies with ancient roots still celebrate this knowledge, as in 
the kosher quietening rituals, prior to the sacrifice of animals, or in 
the blessing of crops before they are harvested. This is more than 
consideration for the sacrifice, for it also recognizes that the food 
thereby retains higher vibrations and is more beneficial for human 


One of the first to convert vibration into visible form was an eigh- 
teenth century German physicist, Ernst Chladni, who found he 
could influence patterns of sand scattered on a steel disc by playing 
different notes on a violin. This was developed last century by Hans 
Jenny of Zurich, using sophisticated equipment with liquids, plas- 
tics, metal filings and powders. 7 He then vibrated the discs at 
ascending pitch, and found that the harmonic patterns that 
appeared at different pitches formed a variety of organic shapes: 
spirals of jellyfish turrets, concentric rings of tree growth, tortoise- 
shell patterns or zebra stripes, pentagonal stars of sea-urchins, 


hexagonal cells of honeycombs, etc. The higher the frequency, the 
more complex the pattern. Jenny also produced a stunning film 
which shows that raising the pitch of sound caused a static pattern 
to change into a moving one. 

All of these were, of course, the same geometric and vortical 
forms which underlie the ordering of physical matter; thus 'inor- 
ganic' matter vibrated simply with sound produces 'organic' shapes. 
But what is intriguing is that the sand collects on the 'dead' areas of 
the plate, for the 'life' of the pattern is vibrating on the background 
that is free of sand. The paradox is that the visible expression of 
energy is the inverse of the actual vibratory pattern, which is invisi- 
ble. Organic growth and development require harmony. Resonance 
is the process by which harmony is brought to lower systems which 
then provide a firm basis upon which higher structures may be built. 

One is reminded that the early Christian Gnostics insisted that 
the physical world is but a shadow or shell of a supreme ordering 
energy that exists in another dimension. Schauberger also saw the 
physical form like a discarded mantle or energetic detritus, the cre- 
ative energy of the fifth dimension having been spent. Callum Coats 
saw the resonant pattern associated with a life form as the seed 
bearing the image or idea of what is to be created. He argued that all 
physical manifestation develops as the product of focused energy 
from the 'Will-to-create' or original 'Source.' 

Patterns and shapes 

Patterns are to do with order; with design and structure. Nothing 
can come into being without a design or template. The patterns in 
Nature are governed by laws that oral tradition tells were the gift of 
the gods (perhaps a rationalization of a chicken- and-egg situa- 
tion!). Holistic or spiritual science sees Nature as a mirror of the 
original creative impulse in the Universe, a manifestation of the 
Universal Mind, or The-All-That-Is. 

Our science, since the Renaissance, has been searching for 
immutable Laws that help to explain how the natural world works. 
Because the territory it observes is limited to the physical, conven- 
tional science rejects the idea of a cosmic order that affects the 
Earth and its inhabitants at a subtle energetic level, which frus- 
trated Schauberger. He demonstrated that a new science that has 
more in common with ancient wisdom does show how the world 


is subservient to cosmic laws, creating 'correspondences' between 
the two orders. 

Until comparatively recent times, scientists and philosophers 
recognized the creative energy of Nature as sacred. They saw the 
way in which Nature's patterns and its complex interdependences 
were so often expressed in very specific shapes and numbers as 
proof of God at work. So they called these correspondences sacred 
numbers and sacred geometry. It is certainly difficult to explain 
away the complex mathematical and symbolic patterns in Nature as 
purely accidental or fortuitous (see below, p. 66). 

Patterns in motion 

In the beginning was the vortex 8 

All life is motion. Natural movement is not in straight lines, but in 
spirals, or in spiraling vortices. Spirals are the actual shape of fluid 
energy evolving order from chaos. Viktor Schauberger saw them as 
the natural movement of life, from the structure of galaxies down to 
the atom. The spiral is the most common vehicle for 'correspon- 
dences' — as above, so below. 

The spiral can develop in a number of different ways: as a vor- 
tex, moving upwards or downwards, round in a circle, or doubling 
back on itself. Whenever there is movement, spirals form, visibly 
with water; but gases and even electrical fields express themselves 
in spirals or doughnuts. Sinews, tissues, blood and bones and so 
many formations in organic life are spiral in form. 9 

Rhythms within the solar system 

The relationship between Earth and Moon can be very subtle. 
Professor Frank Brown of Northwestern University has shown 
how the 'biological clocks' that initiate cyclical activities like rat- 
running, and colour change in fiddler crabs are subject to lunar 
rhythms. His better known experiment involved the shipment in 
hermetically sealed containers of oysters from the sea shore at 
New Haven, Connecticut to Evanston, Illinois, 2000 miles inland. 
Within a couple of weeks they had adjusted the conspicuous 
rhythm of opening and closing their shells to the lunar tides that 
would have existed at Evanston had it been on a sea coast. 


The terrestrial environment is teeming with electromagnetic 
phenomena and their secondary effects, which are demonstrably 
related to greater events in outer space. Dr Harold Burr of Yale 
University kept extensive records of the voltage changes meas- 
ured in holes bored in the trunks of trees. When both ends of a 
wire were inserted into two holes vertically a yard apart, an elec- 
trical current could be detected moving either up or down, at dif- 
ferent voltages, in regular cycles that were not related to the 
Moon's phases, but to some other unidentified non-terrestrial 
source. His records showed that all trees, even hundreds of miles 
apart, would simultaneously experience the same changes of the 
voltage and direction of the current. It is as if the whole family of 
trees responds to the same electrical rhythm, like a cosmic 
breathing. 10 

It seems that there are universal laws, not yet fully understood, 
which guide an organism's growth into predetermined patterns. As 
the vehicle for creative energy, the spiral is clearly involved in the 
organic growth of plants and embryos. Buds contain all the concen- 
trated energy of the future plant, and their mathematical analysis 
can yield clues as to how this formative energy is expressed. Rudolf 
Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy, initiated these studies, 
which have been developed in great detail by the projective mathe- 
matician Lawrence Edwards. 11 

Edwards discovered that tree buds expand and contract in a 
curious rhythm, specific to the species. He applied Steiner's theory 
that a species often has a particular connection to a planet. Steiner 
suggested correspondences between particular trees and flowers 
and certain planets, for example, the oak with Mars, and the beech 
with Saturn. The results clearly showed that these bud pulsations 
are linked to the cycles of particular planets. The Moon on its own 
had little effect, but when amplified by an alignment with Saturn 
(for the beech) and to Mars (in the case of the oak), showed unmis- 
takable fortnightly rhythms. There was one beech tree studied that 
did not show these phenomena. It was found to be growing a few 
yards from an electricity supply substation! 

The confrontation of two geometric systems 

Schauberger was at odds with scientific rationalism. He described 
our prevailing Euclidean geometric system as 'techno-academic.' It 


is essentially a controlled, closed system whose elements are the 
point, the straight line, the circle and the ellipse. This system dom- 
inates the contemporary worldview and mindset and is incompati- 
ble with Nature. 

In more traditional communities, the hard, straight lines of 
structures were often softened with decorative embellishments, 
such as are still found on the eaves or rooflines in some Alpine 
villages. In the last century, ornamentation has been stripped 
away in architectural design and we are left with buildings that 
present a naked angularity and sterile uniformity (of agricultural 

Until modern times the Chinese rejected the Euclidean model. 
Their building designs were informed by geomantic principles that 
recognized the straight line as the path of the dragon, the personi- 
fication of destructive energy. This energy could be tamed by mak- 
ing it flow into curves and spirals. The Chinese understood in those 
days that straight lines fostered disruptive behaviour. Perhaps it is 
time to consider what a deadening effect the boxes we inhabit may 
have on our thoughts and emotions; of how our dependence on the 
straight line may cause us to behave. 

Nature's system is non-Euclidean, open and dynamic; its ele- 
ments are open spirals forms, shell, egg and vortical forms. This 
facilitates a fluid and adaptable environment, one in which forms 
are able to evolve into more complex and creative arrangements. 
Other creatures, whose sensitivity is nourished by the subtle ener- 
gies of open forms, make use of roundness and curves in their 
nests, burrows, and shells. In order to arrest the downward spiral 
of our culture, we must take note of systems that encourage cre- 
ative change (see Fig. 5.1, p. 78). Schauberger wished that we could 
remember that we were created as part of the organic processes of 
Nature, rather than the mechanical processes that we have 

Sacred geometry 

Viktor Schauberger saw patterns and rhythms as the heartbeat of 
the Universe, and was fascinated by the traditional use of the lan- 
guage of number and form to codify how they are repeated and 
in what form. It is hard for us, schooled in a rationalist worldview 
which separates form from the natural order to see that they are 


part of one whole. The ancients regarded mathematics and geom- 
etry as the tools to understand patterns in Nature and in the Uni- 
verse. The religious leaders of old, who were also the scientists 
and mathematicians, did not make our mistake of putting differ- 
ent phenomena in separate compartments. To them, the world of 
matter and reason and the world of spirit and the awareness of 
God were all one. In the context of myth and symbol, they used 
numbers and forms in a way that would satisfy the spiritual sense 
of meaning and the scientific need for structure and reason. Out 
of this process arose the traditions of numerology and sacred 

In all the ancient cultures, the square symbolized the Earth of 
matter and rationalization, and the circle the encompassing world 
of spirit and feeling. How to bring them into balance was called 
'squaring the circle' and was the pursuit both of architecture and 
philosophy. The sum of the sides of the square was equal to the cir- 
cumference of the circle, so they come into harmony by enclosing 
the same area. This is sometimes used as a metaphor for the bal- 
anced personality. So 'circling the square' indicates someone whose 
rationality is greater than his/her sense of feeling. 

As with other problems in sacred geometry, though it is not 
possible to draw this relationship by simple measurement, 
because it is part of the natural order, that is where the solution is 
to be found — in fact in the relationship of the size of the Moon 
to the size of the Earth. 12 You draw a square around the circle of 
the Earth (each side of which will equal the Earth's diameter). 
Then you draw the Moon on the same scale, sitting on top of the 
Earth. A circle with its centre as the centre of the Earth, and its cir- 
cumference passing through the centre of the Moon will have a 
circumference equal to the sum of the sides of the square enclos- 
ing the Earth. 

Fig. 4.2 also contains the 3-4-5 Pythagorean triangle which 
connects the corners of the Earth and Moon squares. It was from 
such relationships that the 'Pythagorean canon of proportions' was 
created. The basics of musical harmony depend on intervals created 
by these divine proportions. There were canons of architecture, of 
painting and of musical harmony taught in the medieval mystery 
schools, and partly revived in the Renaissance. 

Fig. 4.2. Squaring the circle. 
Sacred geometry is based on observations of 
cosmic relationship. The Great Pyramid's base 
straddles the Earth's equatorial diameter; its apex 
is at the centre of the Moon, which is in true 
proportion to the Earth, and held to the square by 
a Pythagorean 3-4-5 right-angled triangle. 


Fig. 4.3. Vesica piscis. 
'The Vessel of the Fish' is the simplest and most 
informative geometrical symbol, being the orifice 
of two interpenetrating circles which inspired the 
master masons of the medieval cathedrals. Many 
Christian symbols, including the fish and the 
bishop's mitre, have been derived from the vesica. 
On the left is the fish, whose eye corresponds, on 
the right, to the geometric 'eye' of the J 3 

rectangle enclosing the vesica. 

The golden mean 

The search for perfect proportion, a shape for containment that is 
aesthetically pleasing, led to the discovery of the 'Golden Mean' or 
/3 rectangle. The square is too mechanical, a long rectangle too 
awkward. The shape that 'seems' to be just right is a square rec- 
tangle with the proportions 1:1.618. This turns out to be the mag- 
ical proportion favoured by Nature in her designs. A series of 
these, reducing in size, form a perfect spiral, like the nautilus shell 
(Fig. 4.4). 

Spiral forms often display a similar 'sacred' proportion of 
1:1.618; numbers in the Fibonacci series, for example, which main- 
tains the Golden mean proportions indefinitely, and dictates the 
beautiful spirals in a sunflower head, Nature's ingenious way of 
packing the maximum number of seeds into the head. 13 An intrigu- 
ing form that arises in Nature, either on its own, or as part of a more 
complex form, is the vesica piscis (Fig. 4.3). It is the feminine prin- 
ciple of generation from which spring all other geometrical forms, 
from triangles, squares, polygons, to Golden mean rectangles, which 
abound in sacred architecture. 

All the traditional arts and sciences were based on the same cos- 
mic truths expressed in number, and the sacred numbers were the 
ratios in a revealed world order, drawn from the experience of mys- 
tics and confirmed by precise measurements of the solar system. 
Sacred buildings from Stonehenge to the Temple of Solomon, 


ancient Egyptian paintings, the works of Michelangelo, all have 
their magical effects and power over human consciousness attrib- 
uted to the use of these divine proportions. 

The Middle Ages were a time when the physical and the spir- 
itual were completely intertwined, but our histories, based on the 
rational 'Enlightenment' worldview, regard those centuries as a 
time of ignorance and deprivation. In fact they were seething 
with creativity and inspiration: thus the Gothic cathedrals which 
relied more on an understanding of correct proportion than on 
reasoned engineering skills. Medieval musicians were fascinated 
that if you divided an open string by whole numbers, you can get 
notes that are in exact proportions. 14 They rediscovered the mir- 
acles of harmony, and easily accepted them as Divine. This may 
be the reason for the extraordinary beauty of medieval chants. 

The magic of the egg form 

We noted in Chapter 1 that Viktor Schauberger was one of a breed 
of innovative natural scientists who are able to immerse themselves 
so deeply in direct perception of the natural world that concepts or 
theories spontaneously emerge. But his intuition also would bring 
up ideas directly. An example of this was his discovery that Nature 

Fig. 4.4. Snail shell & hyperbolic spiral. 
The spiral of the snail compared to a similarly- 
shaped hyperbolic spiral (right), a non-Euclidean 

open system whose constantly changing curvature 
is based on very precise geometry. 




Fig. 4.5. Pine cone symmetry. 
The left hand cone shows the five decelerating, 
positive mail spirals of energy descending to meet 
the eight accelerating, rising negative female spirals. 
Where they cross each other, a union of the two 
forces produces a seed of new life. This illustrates 
how two antithetical, but oppositely charged forces 
can interact harmonically and be in balance. 

uses egg-shapes to generate creative energies. The egg-shape 
became an important ingredient of his inventions. The egg is the 
only closed shape that will naturally generate vortical movement. 
We shall see in Chapter 17 how Schauberger used egg-shaped com- 
post piles to generate what he called 'fructigenic' energies, to stim- 
ulate plant growth. 

The egg-shape is found, especially in the leading edge of growth, 
in many organisms. The structure of the pine cone is also a good 
example of the egg-shape, though an elongated one. Its form is 
developed according to another strict geometric formula. When you 
examine the structure, you will see that the seed 'wings' form two 
opposing spirals. Moving from left to right (anti-clockwise) the 


descending (male) spirals complete three revolutions in the wave- 
length of the cone; the eight ascending (female) spirals, rising to 
meet the male, are slower moving, completing only one revolution 
in the cone's overall length. Where the male and female spirals inter- 
sect, a seed is born. 

This relationship (proportion) of 5:8 is the signature of the 
'Golden Section,' known also by the Greek letter phi (d>), which 
resolves into the ratio 1:1. 618033988. Phi — and pi (7i),the tran- 
scendental number that describes the circumference of the circle, 
are called 'divine proportions.' Many of Nature's forms depend on 
phi for their generation, as it is one of the vehicles for transform- 
ing energy into form. By varying the length of the radii from the 
centre growth point (the radius length being determined by phi), 
a large variety of natural spirals and leaf shapes can be created. 



How the World Works 

5. Energy Production 

The inefficiency of modern technology 

Why are the accepted methods of producing energy so inefficient? 
Far more energy in terms of fuel must be applied than is produced, 
in most cases more than twice. This has up to now not been of con- 
cern, as fossil fuels have been regarded as unlimited and free for the 
taking, and still are by most, though there is more discussion now 
of sustainability. The main argument for reducing their use is that 
their consumption produces CO2, the principal source of global 
warming. 1 A power source is now regarded as unsustainable unless, 
as for example with solar panels, it is renewable; it does not take 
from the Earth without giving back. 

To compare the efficiency of modern technology with that of the 
human body is illuminating. Walter Schauberger (Viktor's son) cal- 
culated that a typical car on a journey of 1000 km (621 miles) con- 
sumes as much energy as a human being uses in a whole year. In an 
1 1 hour journey, the car has consumed one human being's annual 
oxygen requirement. To replenish the oxygen consumed by the 
world's motor vehicles annually requires healthy forest covering 
28% of the world's land area, far more forest than our present, and 
dwindling, forest cover. 2 There is alarming evidence that the 
amount of free oxygen in our atmosphere is actually reducing. This 
comes from an analysis of air captured in bubbles in ancient gla- 
ciers in Antarctica as well as in amber. 

Using the famous Hasenohrl-Einstein equation E=mc 2 , Walter 
Schauberger calculated that the amount of energy stored in 1 gram of 
material substance (e.g. flesh, wood, water) amounts to 25 million 
kWh. 3 The challenge is how to unlock this source of energy. Viktor 
Schauberger once said: 'More energy is encapsulated in every drop of 
good spring water than an average power station is able to produce.' 4 

Schauberger observed that Nature's methods of producing 
energy were far more efficient, which led him to design implosion 
machines for natural energy production in the belief that they 
would solve the crisis of modern technology. 


Entropy and ectropy 

James Lovelock proposed in his Gaia hypothesis that Nature (for his 
mathematical model he used the name 'Daisyworld') regulates the 
Earth's energy balance through natural feedback mechanisms to 
suit the evolution of life forms. All energy used by living and non- 
living systems eventually degrades to irrecoverable waste heat, or 
disorder. All our physical processes lead to entropy. Nature made use 
of this to create the greenhouse effect, by which increasingly com- 
plex life forms were introduced into the biosphere as the climate 
was gradually modified. 5 

Entropy or disorder has been recycled by the Earth's greenhouse 
effect for millions of years. Every time we walk a pace forward, res- 
piratory processes in the body burn a little ordered carbohydrate to 
power the muscles of our legs, and some disordered waste heat has 
been lost without trace from the surface of the body. Every time a 
simple bacterium moves a milli-millimetre it releases a few micro- 
calories of disordered heat waste. But every time a jet plane cuts its 
way through the stratosphere it leaves behind a massive amount of 
irrecoverable heat that disperses into the planetary heat sink in total 
disorder. It is all a question of degree. We are now increasing entropy 
to an unsustainable degree that is decimating life on the planet. 

The Earth environment provides an extremely narrow tempera- 
ture range compared to the extremes found in the Universe. Growth 
and development of life forms require moderate temperature con- 
ditions, as large or abrupt changes are harmful to most organisms. 
Our warped technology has made us used to very high tempera- 
tures; we produce power through combustion and hot fission. Most 
of our manufacturing processes require excessive heat and high 
pressure. We create chemical compounds using the coercion of heat 
and pressure. Technical man can indeed produce a high degree of 
order in one place, but in so doing he creates a much greater amount 
of disorder elsewhere. 

Scientific 'laws' 

Scientific laws are fairly reliable general statements about particu- 
lar events under specific circumstances. The Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics, for example, which states that all closed systems must 


generate into chaos without input of energy to maintain the ordered 
state, is thought to be inviolable. Schauberger, by demonstrating 
that energy could arise spontaneously in his 'perpetual motion' 
machines, or that frictionless movement could be achieved, dis- 
proved this axiom. 

Due to the remarkable feedback systems of the atmosphere and 
the biosphere, temperatures on Earth are kept within the narrow 
band of those required for abundant life, especially of higher life 
forms. Gaia research has shown that it is life itself which has fine- 
tuned that thermostat, so that more complex life forms are able to 
develop. Some species live within small microclimates, so that on one 
tree you can find several kinds of finch, each having its own niche. 

Humanity is considered to be the most adaptable of species, able 
to survive in a range of about -10°C (14°F) to +40°C (104°F). While 
that is true for the species, it is not true for individuals, unless you 
believe that individual physical health and spiritual wellbeing are 
stronger than they have ever been. One of the requirements of 
Nature is that, in order to be whole, we have to be in tune with our 
environment. It takes many generations of adaptation to a specific 
environment for people to develop fine physical qualities and sen- 
sitive psychic faculties. Similarly it takes generations to adapt safely 
to a change in the environment (for instance, as a result of global 
warming or microwave radiation). In the past two hundred years 
our bodies have been challenged to adapt to higher temperatures 
and in the last sixty to stressful microwave energy. 

Compare this to the efforts modern humans take to accommo- 
date a life divorced from Nature, to jet travel life and unnatural 
food, and one subject to enormous electromagnetic stress. We take 
mountains of pills to counteract physical and emotional imbal- 
ances or go to psychotherapists to assuage our spiritual starvation. 
While he does not suggest returning to primitive life-styles, 
Schauberger assures us that, while our lives are now completely out 
of balance, by following Nature's clues we can regain both equilib- 
rium and sanity. 

Energy pollution 

We usually think of pollution in physical terms, like a room full of 
tobacco smoke, or a factory's chemical effluent poisoning a stream. 
This is the boundary for conventional science. Thus when people 


raise fears about the safety of microwave ovens, radar transmission 
towers, mobile phones, the official response from scientists is 
inevitably, 'there's no evidence that they are any danger to health.' 
Naturally, cynical collusion between government and industry only 
strengthens this misguided view in order to discourage public 
protest or lawsuits. 

Viktor Schauberger brought a further dimension to the concept 
of energy pollution. He understood that the creative process of 
Nature is consistently to refine, to diversify and produce higher 
forms of organic systems — to use a metaphor from human experi- 
ence — to raise consciousness (consciousness as integration of 
higher levels of connectedness). He distinguished three forms in 
which subtle energies perform these upwardly evolutionary func- 
tions, which in the last chapter we called dynagens, fructigens and 

They are produced, as we shall see in the chapters that follow, 
through the specific forms of motion and temperature that Nature 
designed for the purpose of evolution. If I were in a court of law, it 
is these complex processes that I would cite as evidence for mean- 
ing, purpose and above all, intelligence in Nature. Schauberger 
described these 'enlightened' control systems thirty years before Jim 
Lovelock and his colleagues proposed the Gaia theory of intelligent 
self-sustainability in Nature, and in the area of evolutionary ener- 
gies, went far ahead of them. 

The blocking of these creative energies by the emanations from 
modern technological processes Schauberger saw as the most dan- 
gerous form of pollution. Their heat, pressure and, above all, chaotic 
effects actually destroy the more delicate energies of Nature's con- 
structive developmental processes. Thus, chemicals invading a 
stream not only make it dirty and smelly, but they also destroy the 
complex structure of the water, so that it can no longer behave like 
healthy water, but literally dies (see Chapter 11). 

This form of pollution has an evolutionary as well as a health 
effect on people. Schauberger suggested that this explained the well- 
documented degeneration of intelligence and the increase of vio- 
lence in industrial communities. Dr Weston Price, studying fourteen 
isolated indigenous communities around the world in the early 
1930s noted this in the effect that changing from their slowly 
evolved local diet to a western-type diet had on these people (for 
food is energy medicine!). 6 


We don't know how much energy pollution from anti-Nature 
technology affects the environment in general. Logically it should 
be most prevalent near power stations, large factories and the like. 
However, when rivers, which are the arteries of the blood of the 
Earth (see Chapter 11), and normally transmit energy to the sur- 
rounding countryside, are turned into 'lifeless corpses' (as 
Schauberger used to say), what effect will this cadaverous energy 
have on the environment? Clearly, if humanity is to reverse the 
downward devolutionary spiral, our first priority must be to change 
over to Nature's energy systems. 

The choice before us 

Humanity lived a relatively natural and sustainable lifestyle until 
fairly recent times. The growth of industry and its massive demand 
for energy resources has introduced increasing degrees of instabil- 
ity. Going back over 2000 years, but much more clearly in the last 
350 years, it has been possible to chart a different kind of develop- 
ment which has brought with it a deterioration of the natural envi- 
ronment, increasing disorder and inefficiency. 

Callum Coats shows this divergence of the two systems in the 
accompanying chart (Fig. 5.1). In the last 150 years with rapid 
industrialization, a scientifically based technology developed, and 
the divergence shown by the lower curve has become dramatic, with 
dire consequences for the environment. 

By contrast, the curve rising up toward 'ectropy' shows how nat- 
ural evolution builds more complex systems with more evolved 
species on the foundation of earlier ones. This is how biodiversity 
increases. The appearance of new species requires a surplus of evo- 
lutionary energies deriving from the improved conditions of inter- 
dependence. It is as though the growth in natural capital from the 
sound economy of evolution produces interest or surplus energy 
from which new life forms may be formed. Nature's system is so 
economical that little is wasted. The many seeds, nuts and fruits 
which sustain all the currently existing life forms, can be seen as the 
surplus on Nature's interest. 

The mineral resources of the Earth, which are Nature's base cap- 
ital, should never be used. As we shall see in Chapter 17, Schauberger 
illustrates how they are essential building blocks in the production 
of formative energies. The indigenous people understood their 


The Fateful Choice 





Dividend fan ErtEftJEffc 




GAIN due 
to efficiency 


GAIN due 
\a efficiency 


Sun r-Economic 

No change 

100% efficiency 

1 00% efficiency brings nothing 




nrpN&tol status quo in perpetuum 




-OSS due to 

. ( inefficiency 

(10%). AvA.ll AEiUz CAPTTAL FCfl 

LOSS due to 


PUMt tft£ tHPTEM PCfl 


Fig. 5.1. The fateful choice. importance. Mineral-rich lands are for them energy-enhanced areas 

that they regard as sacred. 

Nature has to increase her capital by say 10%, to allow for 
growth, movement, and evolution of new life forms. To live sustain- 
ably is to live off Nature's surpluses (such as the careful harvesting 
of trees under properly controlled mixed forest management). The 
increasing diversity of evolving Nature brings more stability and the 
ability to withstand temporary setbacks (Fig. 5.1). 

The centre line in Fig. 5.1 represents 100% efficiency. This may 
seem the best direction, but it is not the answer. It is undynamic, like 
circular motion. Its uniform condition means it never increases or 
decreases. Above all, the purpose of Nature is to seek movement, 
change and evolution; she despises stasis and uniformity. 

The lower curve represents the path on which we are at this 


time. The use of energy is improvident and wasteful, replacing 
diversity with mass production for quick return, which Nature can- 
not tolerate. Where once rich forest flourished, with a wide diver- 
sity of interdependent species of trees and animals, there exist now 
only monocultures. This requires enormous, hedgeless fields 
where only one crop is grown, dependent on fertilizers that slowly 
destroy the living humus; they become monotonous environmen- 
tal wastelands. Gone are the high yielding, organically nourished 
fields surrounded by windbreaking hedgerows teeming with birds, 
small animals and wildflowers. The frequently reported notices of 
endangered or newly extinct species bear witness to this ebbing 

What Schauberger calls the 'techno-mechanical economic sys- 
tem' produces a downward curve, accelerating as unnatural systems 
of energy are applied more widely. Pollution apart, these systems are 
clearly inefficient. In the 1970s, Walter Schauberger discussed 
industrial efficiency with Dr Fritz Kortegast, head of research and 
development at Mercedes-Benz in Stuttgart, who confirmed that at 
that time the propulsive energy produced by their most sophisti- 
cated engines was only 13% of the total energy introduced, the bal- 
ance consumed as dissipated heat and pollution. A business this 
inefficient would soon fail. 

The truth is that our techno-mechanical economic system is cre- 
ated by vested interests that consume energy through the massive 
exploitation of non-renewable resources. It must be clear that the 
ultimately such unsustainable technology can produce only eco- 
nomic collapse, social chaos and environmental deterioration. The 
disorder and decay that we are witnessing come from our depend- 
ence on an energy system that is self-destructive. In this system, an 
investment of $100 produces $13, which in turn would produce only 
S1.69. 7 

Energy defines quality 

Convinced that we are the pinnacle of life on the Earth, we humans 
are actually destroying the very basis of creativity on the planet. It 
is the diversity of Nature that supports our place in the biosphere. 
The ongoing extraction of oil, coal and other minerals, deforesta- 
tion, overfishing, and the continual loss of animal and plant species 
threaten our very existence. It is well accepted that only inferior 


kinds of fish can live in poor quality water. It is no different for peo- 
ple. By allowing the natural resources of the environment to depre- 
ciate, the quality of human potential inevitably suffers. 

Conventional science does not understand the importance of 
quality. For the reductionist scientist water is water, or a genetically 
engineered crop is the 'substantial equivalent' of a conventional 
crop. No two things can be identical in Nature whose processes 
depend on constant change and transformation. While quantitative 
science states that 1 + 1 makes 2, no two natural systems can ever 
be equated. 

Monocultures and mass production mean repetition. They 
repeat an energetic or experiential process that has already hap- 
pened, in which no new development, no advance, however slight, is 
possible. Identical repetition goes against evolution, because it 
wastes energy. The development of a new natural process or system 
demands change and variety. 

George Gurdjieff, the Caucasian mystic and teacher, used to 
say that the ordinary person operates like a blind machine with 
no awareness or consciousness. Viktor Schauberger saw contem- 
porary humans as superficial creatures that look, but never see. 
Our seeing is limited to recognition, not deep examination. We 
mistake outward appearance for totality, effect for cause. What we 
actually see are the external shells of manifestation, what is left 
by the formative energy. We don't see the energy that created the 

The creative energy-vortex 

Callum Coats illustrates the process of the creation of matter in 
the diagram (Fig. 5.2). As we have seen, creative energy moves spi- 
rally in the form of a vortex. The creative process takes place as 
the energy containing the blueprint of what is being created 
moves in whatever way it needs to in orderto create the system it 
wishes. It draws down matter as a mirror image of the idea or 
blueprint. This is why the physical is said to be the shell of the 
organic reality. 

What we have described is the formative energy. There is also 
the sustaining energy, the Ch'i in Chinese terms, which moves in 
the same way. This is the way a healthy river moves; and the blood 
in our capillaries, external manifestations of an energy path. We 


Gradual consolidation of outer 
physical form of inner energetic 


Physical growth stops where the 
particles of 'frozen' energy are too 
coarse to be drawn along any 
further. The material form is 
therefore constructed of energetic 

Fig. 5.2. Energy and form. 

In the beginning was energy; it is primary — the cause; it creates the form in which it wishes to move; 
the form is the mirror of the energy — the secondary effect. 

see the blood, but we don't see the energy that pushes it. What is 
visible in blood is the matter that is too coarse to be taken to the 
final destination of the energy. Energy manifests how it wants to 
move in the most efficient way. It is as if, when we build a house, 
we build it to suit our lifestyle, one in which it is easy to move 

All natural systems are mirrors of their pattern of energy, or of 
the 'idea' that sought to create them in the first place. When the sys- 
tem is in place, the energy from which it originated is rejected as 
matter being too coarse to be carried further in the energy stream. 
Viktor Schauberger used to describe the Earth as a huge dung-heap, 
saying that all living things were the result of waste matter ejected 
by the creative energies moving in a certain way, and which were 
unable to continue transporting the material further. 

Put simply, it is only those energies that remain immaterial that 
contribute to an increase in life-force, while the remaining energetic 
material is expelled as waste, just like daily human defecation. There 
are subtle nonmaterial energies in the food we eat, which are used 
to produce thought processes and metabolic functions. The human 
body is like a energy path containing a complex vortex which trans- 
forms the energy of matter into intellectual and physical actions. It 
is therefore axiomatic that the quality of our functions is dependent 
on the quality of the energy that we ingest. Viktor Schauberger cam- 
paigned for high quality nutrition and water. 

So, physical manifestation depends on the movement of energy. 
All of Nature's creations that we observe are the outward shell of 
the formative energy path. Schauberger used to say that a tree will 
grow only to the height to which the energies can draw up the phys- 
ical mass, although the tree's main energy body lies above it. 

He demonstrated that the vortex is the natural form of move- 
ment for energy. The accompanying photograph (Fig. 5.3) well illus- 
trates the spiraling form that water prefers. Each of the twists is 
slightly smaller than the one above. Viktor's son, Walter, calculated 
the mathematics and proportions of this structure. 8 

Callum Coats used the action of our weather to demonstrate the 
importance of the vortex in creating material substance. The spiral- 
ing air masses possess very little density, very slow rotational veloc- 
ities and a large radius of influence. When these air masses 
converge, they gain in speed with the reduction in their radius of 


At their extreme development, these air masses take on the more p; g 5 3 a natural vortex, 
physical form of a tornado or waterspout. With their source in the 
lower density air mass subjected to solar radiation, as they descend 
with increasing velocity they become denser and more physical. The 
core of some tornados becomes so dense they can bend railway 

Viktor Schauberger found it hard to understand why science has 
not ascribed any fundamental importance to the natural movement 
of energy and Nature's systems of spiral movement, which are so 
clear, from the scale of a galaxy to that of a DNA molecule. Perhaps 
this is because it has been too immersed in the Euclidean elements 


of mechanics with little knowledge or conception of organics. We 
have never taken the time to understand enough Nature's dynamics 
to be able to copy them. 

A famous professor of logic once pointed out: 

We must conclude, I think, that there is no room for telepathy 
in a materialistic universe. Telepathy is something that ought 
not to happen at all, if the materialist theory were true. But it 
does happen. So there must be something seriously wrong 
with the materialist theory, however numerous and imposing 
the normal facts which support it may be. 9 

Goethe too said of scientists,'Whatever you cannot calculate you do 
not think is real.' 


6. Motion — the Key to Balance 

What we are doing is wrong and contrary to Nature. Nature moves in 
other ways. She primarily employs drawing (i.e. sucking), energies, 
since these are indispensable to Nature for the growth and mainte- 
nance of life. Nature uses pressure energies and explosive forces only 
for reducing quality and destruction. The work of atomic physicists is 
also upside down. They would be more correct if they started with 
simple nuclear fusion. They should set about the cold transformation 
of hydrogen into helium, as Nature has done over the millions of years 
of Creation. Today's technology has a tiger by the tail, because it splits 
the heaviest atoms with the greatest development of heat and an 
enormous expenditure of energy. 1 

We use the wrong form of motion 

The way earth, water and air are moved determines whether patho- 
genic or healthy life-forms come into being. New life can arise from 
burnt (carbonized) bacterial cultures, but if it is wrongly moved and 
processed then its parasitic nature soon becomes evident. However, if 
this culture is placed in soil that has been spared humanity's misguid- 
ed interference, then its life-force blossoms again immediately. 2 

Motion and energy are inextricably interlinked. Movement is an 
expression of energy, and together with temperature, these are the 
cornerstones of Schauberger's Eco-technology. Through his careful 
observations and experiments he became aware of the difference 
between Nature's way of working and the prevailing human tech- 
nology. He realized that the principles under which conventional 
technology operates must be basically unsound to have produced 
such appalling consequences for water, for soil and indeed for all of 

Most of us are aware of the effects of chemicals in the body and 
on the soil, of the dangers of radioactive waste and biotechnology. 
But Schauberger was also concerned with something much more 
basically wrong with our technology. Being above all a practical 
man, he observed the appalling squandering of resources; why are 


the internal combustion and steam engines on which our civiliza- 
tion depend not even 50% efficient? The energy that is not turned 
into power or motion is wasted and heats up the atmosphere, 
adding to the greenhouse effect. From his observations of Nature 
came the answer, which is probably the most important of 
Schauberger's discoveries — that we use the wrong form of 

Our machines and technological processes channel agents such 
as air, water and other liquids and gases into the type of motion that 
Nature uses only to decompose and dissolve matter. As a conse- 
quence, the air, water and other substances are devitalized and 
debilitated, affecting their surroundings. The energy produced by 
our technology is harmful because, by its very nature, it causes dete- 
rioration in the environment through strengthening those energies 
that break down structures and degrade quality, while at the same 
time suppressing those that increase quality and thus help plants 
and animals to be healthy. 

Biodynamic and organic gardeners have commented that they 
value Viktor Schauberger's advice on how to treat materials that 
Nature breaks down for recycling, for these insights have been lack- 
ing for this form of cultivation (see Chapter 17 for more on this topic). 

Through its dependence on the decomposing mode of motion 
our technology is dangerously affecting the vital biodiversity and 
balance of our ecosystems, the stability of our societies, and is one of 
the main causes of human-generated global warming. The form of 
motion on which we depend for building and development is the one 
that Nature uses to destabilize and break down. Nature uses another 
form of motion for creating and rebuilding. It is hardly surprising 
then, that our technology is self-destructive and unsustainable. 

Our mechanical, technological systems of motion are based on 
explosive, outward pushing energies which always meet resistance, 
producing heat and friction. This form of movement goes out at a 
tangent, producing the fastest movement at the periphery (as in a 
wheel), a form of motion that is disintegrative, noisy and inefficient, 
because so much of the energy is dissipated. The effect is to break 
apart, to fragment. This is the way we generate our power; from the 
inside to the outside. It is called centrifugal movement, and is a 
process that Nature will use only to break down before reassembly 
into some other form takes place (see Fig. 1.2, p. 33). 

By contrast, Nature uses the opposite, centripetal, form of 


motion, moving from the outside to the inside with increasing 
velocity, which acts to cool, to condense, to structure; like water 
going down a plughole. When we talk of something imploding on 
itself, there is not the resistance or dissipation of energy that is 
found in the explosive process. The reverse takes place, cooling and 
condensing. Schauberger called this 'constructive' movement. 

The centrifugal form of movement should not be called 
'destructive,' because the word has such a negative connotation, 
and it has its rightful purpose in Nature; instead he called it'decon- 
structive.' Viktor Schauberger demonstrated with his remarkable 
implosion machines that replicated the in-winding motion of 
Nature, that this was the way to create energy for human needs in 
the future. 

As Schauberger's discovery has such enormous implications for 
the future of human culture, why has it not been openly debated in 
scientific circles? The reasons are two-fold. Firstly, Schauberger, 
being persona non grata with the German postwar establishment, 
was not granted the oxygen of publicity. Secondly, he was talked of 
in postwar Germany as a Nazi collaborator, by association rather 
than fact, as his work for the Nazi regime was carried out under 
duress. Though both the Russians and the Americans secretly con- 
fiscated his research papers, the Cold War days kept his name in the 
shadows. His discoveries have been enthusiastically embraced by 
the alternative culture, but as yet have not become more widely 

The 'original' motion 

Viktor Schauberger was always comparing terrestrial laws of 
motion to the patterns of movement in the Heavens. He firmly 
believed that there existed a 'form originating' motion that was 
responsible for the evolutionary dynamics of the Earth and the Cos- 
mos, generally referring to it as the 'original' motion. The whole Uni- 
verse is continually in motion. This movement is in spirals, many 
spirals within spirals. Galaxies take a spiral form. As we saw in 
Chapter 4, forms in Nature very often follow the law As Above, so 
Below,' implying that there is a Universal language of form and 
motion. Liquids and gases prefer to move in spirals; likewise energy. 
Dowsers find energy spirals in the ground. Energy in the human 
body seems to do the same. 

Fig. 6.1. Spiral galaxy superimposed by 
hyperbolic spiral. 3 


As Callum Coats recounts: 

Fig. 6.2. Three basic forms of motion. 
When combined into one, these make up the 
dynamic, creative, formative spiral-vortical 
movement. 5 

There are many examples in ordinary language which recall 
this spiral movement. When we ex-(s)pire, we leave this our 
'mortal coil.' When we are in-spire-d, we feel drawn to higher 
ideals. Our spir(e)it is raised when we are sucked into the 
upward spiral. Similarly through re-spir(e)-ation the ioniza- 
tion balance of the body, which varies according to the time of 
day, is adjusted by the proportional ionization of the air 
indrawn through the nostrils, which due to opposite directions 
of rotation, is negatively ionized by the left nostril and posi- 
tively by the right nostril. Sneezing, therefore, may perhaps be 
a compensating process, through which high opposing charges 
resulting from over-ionization are reduced to zero. 



Interestingly, the German word — Wirbelsaule — for the 
spinal column, the fundamental supporting structure of the 
human body, literally means a 'spiral' column. Similarly each 
of the vertebrae is referred to as a whirlpool or vortex. 
Clearly the Germans have long had a completely different 
view of the central structure of our bodies. Whereas we see 
it as a stiff, more or less rigid, physical structure, they 
understand it more as an energy path. This has obvious 
associations with the Hindu concept of Kundalini, the name 
given to the two serpents that metaphorically dwell at the 
base of the spine, whose rising energizes that spiritualize 
the various higher chakras (energy vortices) of the physical 
body and whose entwinement on Mercury's staff (the 
caduceus) empowers him as Messenger of the Gods. Nature 
too, provides us with countless examples of dynamic spiral 
growth and movement in the form of galaxies, cyclones, 
whirlpools and tornadoes, of which we, in our blindness and 
arrogance, fail to take note in our pursuit of mechanical 
perfection. 4 

Types of motion 

All natural dynamic motion consists of one or more of three basic 
types of movement — orbital, rotational and circulatory (see 
Fig. 6.3). When these are put together they produce a complex 
form we call spiral-vortical motion which Nature uses to build, 
structure and purify. 

Viktor distinguished two forms of spiral-vortical motion — 
radial — > axial (or centripetal) and axial — > radial (or centrifugal) 
motion. In Fig. 1.2, axial — > radial motion is shown initially as a 
movement around a centre, changing to a tangential movement as 
it moves outward. There is no motion at the centre but, with 
increasing distance from the centre, the speed of movement and 
the degree of disintegration also increase. The wooden wagon- 
wheels of yore had an iron band around them for this reason. The 
'tie-er' (tyre or tire) held the wheel together. 

The form of movement employed by our technology produces 
excess energy in the form of heat or noise. Initially, with no move- 
ment at the centre, velocity and resistance increase with the out- 
ward 'explosion.' This axial -> radial centrifugal form of motion can 


Fig. 6.3. The planetary vortex. 
The movements of the inner planets, shown 
dynamically over a period of one full Saturn cycle 
of 29.46 years, actually describe a vortex, with 
each planet describing its own spiral path about 
the Sun. 

be described as divergent, decelerating, dissipating, structure-loos- 
ening, disintegrating, destructive and friction-inducing. 

While the explosive dispersion of energy creates noise, its cre- 
ative concentration of energy, is silent. As Viktor often insisted, 
'Everything that is natural is silent, simple and cheap.' A natural 
forest can be a haven of silence. The millions of chemical and 
atomic movements and interactions taking place are energetic 
processes, an extraordinary concentration of quiet creative energy. 
In contrast, its destruction brings the horrendous racket of chain- 
saws, heavy machinery and crashing trees. Our mechanical forms 
of movement are almost always axial — > radial and heat- and fric- 
tion-inducing. Nature's dynamic processes, on the other hand, use 
the opposite form of movement, the slowest at the periphery and 
the fastest at the centre. The movements of a cyclone or a tornado 
are a good example, flowing from the outside inwards with increas- 
ing velocity, which acts to cool, to condense, to structure. The cen- 
tre of a cyclone is not hot; it is cool. 

Radial — > axial (centripetal) motion can be defined as conver- 
gent, contracting, consolidating, creative, integrating, formative, 
friction reducing. 6 The dynamics of evolution must therefore follow 
this centripetal path, for if the opposite were the case, all would have 
come to a stop almost before it started. 

Force is the employment of energy to do work, and can be meas- 
ured as acceleration. It is important to distinguish between two 
forms of acceleration, for one form breaks apart and the other con- 
solidates. In the deconstructive form the radius of rotation is 
expanding and the form of acceleration is pressure- and friction- 


intensifying (centrifugal acceleration); the constructive when the 
radius of rotation is reducing, creating a form of acceleration that is 
suction-increasing and friction-reducing (centripetal acceleration). 
More power must be applied to maintain the same velocity or to 
increase speed with centrifugal acceleration. With centripetal accel- 
eration, the velocity and energy increase automatically. Viktor called 
this 'formative force,' the constructive energies from which all life is 


7. The Atmosphere and Electricity 

It is thought that, when the Earth was young, after it had cooled from 
a molten mass of condensing gases and a crust had formed, it was 
entirely covered in water. In those early days there was great heat loss 
and the Earth was cooler. The lower part of the initial atmosphere 
was composed of water vapour evaporated from the vast ocean, with 
a contribution of other gases emanating from volcanic eruptions. 
Because of its high specific heat 1 and its capacity to retain heat, the 
water vapour gradually absorbed the heat of the Sun, thus raising the 
average temperature. Heat losses were kept to a minimum at night 
because water absorbs infrared heat. It was these qualities of water 
that allowed the greenhouse effect to take hold. Otherwise the Earth 
would have remained cold, lifeless and barren. 

Of all liquids, water has the greatest ability to store heat. It 
absorbs heat slowly, releasing it slowly. Water vapour was thus an 
ideal medium for conserving heat on the Earth's surface, enabling 
life to gain hold and, once it was established, water became the 
medium for complex life forms to develop. 

What makes water different from all other liquids is its so-called 
'anomaly point' or 'point of anomalous expansion,' which will be 
discussed in more detail in Chapter 9. Contrary to the behaviour of 
other liquids, the volume of water does not decrease continually 
with increasing cold; below a temperature of +4°C (39°F) it starts 
to expand again, and on freezing expands still further. 

Pure water will freeze only at a temperature of around -40°C 
(-40°F) or in clouds at about -10°C (14°F), which again is fairly 
important, as we shall discover later. Compared to absolute zero 
(-273.15°C), supposedly the lowest temperature found in the Uni- 
verse, the temperature of 0°C (32°F), or freezing point, is relatively 
warm. The normal human living environment, between approxi- 
mately -10°C (14°F) and +40°C (104°F), is not a large range. 

At a height of about 22 km (14 miles) above the Earth's surface, 
water vapour becomes so thin and unsubstantial that it is dissoci- 
ated into its constituent atoms of oxygen and hydrogen through the 
action of strong ultraviolet radiation. As it is the heavier element, 


the oxygen then sinks back to Earth, while the lighter hydrogen 
atoms rise eventually to reunite with the hydrogen of space. 

The widowed single atom oxygen atoms are now exposed to high 
levels of ionizing radiation which causes them to combine with 
molecular oxygen (O2) to form an allotropic form of oxygen, O3 or 
ozone, which absorbs dangerous ultraviolet radiation, a process 
vital for shielding life on Earth. 

Earth's atmosphere 

The atmosphere is a relatively thin veneer surrounding the Earth, 
containing the gases essential to life. Its total thickness is about 400 
km (248 miles), which represents about 0.3% of the Earth's diame- 
ter. It has four principal zones, through which the temperature 
swings alternately from a falling mode to a rising mode: 2 

During each of these temperature transitions, the anomaly point 
of 4°C (+39°F) is passed, so that in each zone there is first a band of 
negative temperature gradient, followed by a band of positive temper- 
ature gradient (see Chapter 5). The three lower zones each have a 
water layer close to these anomaly points, cumulus and cirrus clouds 
(troposphere), nacreous clouds (stratosphere) and noctilucent clouds 
(mesosphere) as shown on Fig. 7.1 which would resist the transfer of 
an electric charge. Callum Coats has suggested that this could result 
in the creation of a natural biocondenser, a condenser being a device 
with which an electric charge can be accumulated and stored. 

height (km/miles) 



13/0 to 8 

+ 15°C (59°F) to -60°C (-76°F) 

area of weather activity 

+4°C (39°F) layer 


and the greenhouse effect 


13/8 to 50/31 

-60°C (-76°F) to +10°C (50°F) 

contains ozone layer 

+4°C (39°F) layer 


and very high clouds 


50/31 to 80/50 

+10°C (50°F) to -100°C (-148°F) 

rapidly falling temperature 

+4°C (39°F) layer 


and pressure 


80/50 to 400/248 

-100°C (-148°F) to +600°C(+1100°F) a 

Dsorbs Sun's shortwave 

+4°C (39°F) layer 



Table 1. The four principal zones of the 
Earth's atmosphere. 


short-wave 1t30 Km 
* radio reflection 

Fig. 7.1. Section through Earth's atmosphere, showing temperature fluctuations. 

Galium Coats postulates a series of concentric rings where the temperature reaches water's anomaly point of +4° C, 

which Schauberger identified as water's state of greatest potential, together creating an accumulator of energy to facilitate the emergence of life. 


Figs. 7.2 & 3. Increase in potential and 
charge density. 

In a condenser for accumulating electrical charge, 
the energy potential increases by either reducing 
the area of one plate, or by bringing it closer to the 
dielectric layer (separating plate). 

Electricity is the result of magnet polarities put into motion. In 
electricity the process depends on the polarity of electrons in the 
atom. At the physical level electricity is familiar in thunderstorm 
activity and the electrical current supplied to our homes through 
cables. There is a much more refined form of electricity more 
properly called bioelectricity which is produced by living organ- 
isms. It is much less studied or even recognized, being an octave 
higher, but Schauberger found that this is crucial to all natural 

For electrical activity to be possible, the charges of different 
polarity must be either joined by a conducting path or separated by 
an insulator or dielectric. Figs. 7.2 and 7.3 illustrate two situations 
in a normal electrical condenser or capacitor for accumulating an 
electrical charge. By reducing the surface area of one plate, the 
charge density on that side of the dielectric is increased, in the ratio 
of its area to the larger plate. So if it is a quarter the area of the 
larger plate, its charge density will be four times that of the larger 
plate. What is called the potential is the amount of energy with 
which the two opposite charges try to balance out the difference. 
The energy potential increases as the distance between the plates 


is decreased. 3 If the area of one plate is reduced at the same time as 
it is moved closer to the dielectric, the potential is increased expo- 

The terrestrial biocondenser 

While Fig. 7.2 illustrates the principle of a normal electrical con- 
denser, Fig. 7.5 shows the typical situation at layers of the atmos- 
phere where the air temperature is close to the anomaly point of 
+4°C (39°F). The pure water layer takes the place of the dielectric 
layer. Generally speaking the positively charged surface is influ- 
enced by the positive temperature gradient, and the negatively 
charged surface by the negative gradient. If the charge of the posi- 
tive plate is raised, that of the negative plate will rise automatically 
to the same level, the charges being distributed evenly on the plates' 

If we now rearrange these plates in the form of concentric cylin- 
ders as shown in Fig. 7.4, to simulate the proposed pattern of the 
+4°C (39°F) condensers in the atmospheric zones, you will see that 
the surface area of the inner cylindrical plates reduces from the out- 
side inwards and the charge and potential increase automatically. 
The greater the number of nested plates therefore, the more intense 
the energy potential. 

Reduction in Distance 
Increase in Potential 

Potential =2 2 
Distance = 1 

Fig. 7.4. Reduction in distance, increase in 

The dielectric layers act like non-conductive 
membranes or insulators, separating positive and 
negative charges. 


Fig. 7.5. Terrestrial bio-condenser. 
A schematic proposed by Galium Coats, 
illustrating how the Sun's electromagnetic energy 
is amplified by the diminishing radius of each 
dielectric layer formed by water strata at a 
temperature of +4°C. 

Fig. 7.5, drawn roughly to scale, shows how we can see that each 
succeeding layer from the outside inwards, like an onion, has a 
smaller surface area owing to their concentricity. In other words, 
these layers form a condenser with concentric spherical plates. This 
demonstrates how, on encountering each successive, concentric, 
spherical +4°C (39°F) dielectric layer, the energy potential coming 
from the Sun is gradually magnified. As the Sun's energy penetrates 
the atmosphere, it becomes increasingly concentrated as it 
approaches the Earth's surface, due to these enveloping layers of 
+4°C (39°F) water. (Remember that pure water does not freeze at 
temperatures above -40°C /-40°F.) 


Earth as an accumulator of energy 

Viewed from a more cosmic perspective these strata are 
extremely close together, producing a very high potential of 
energy. Callum Coats proposes an ingenious concept of the Earth 
as an accumulator of energy gradually building up an electro- 
magnetic charge (Fig. 7.5). This accumulation of energy would 
naturally enhance the emergence of life because, without differ- 
ences in electrical charge, gender, potential or a suitable energy 
field, life is impossible. 

Viktor Schauberger was concerned to identify which natural 
processes and functions might promote the concentration of the 

energetic matrix within which physical life can evolve. He 

favoured an energy matrix being created by the 'original' motion 
of the Earth as it rotates about its own axis and circulates its bio- 
magnetic and bioelectrical energies through itself during its 
365.26 day, orbital waltz around the Sun. 

It seems reasonable to propose that these variously charged lay- 
ers in the atmosphere are a product of the Earths rotation. The 
+4°C (39°F) layers form charge-resisting strata which may con- 
tribute to the reflection of radio waves, though the conventional 
explanation for their reflection is the different ionization levels, 
water vapour being present at different densities in the different lay- 
ers. 4 The development of electricity can be demonstrated by very 
simple experiments, in which energy in the form of an electric 
charge is generated by falling water. 5 

These experiments demonstrate that through an increase of 
water vapour, a saturation level is reached where individual water 
molecules can form raindrops that generate an electric charge as 
they fall. This charge is released at a certain point as lightning. 
Ozone is created by the intense ionization caused by an electrical 
discharge, and is often carried up by the powerful rising currents of 
a thunderstorm, to reinforce the ozone layer, which screens life from 
excessive ultraviolet radiation. 

Photographs taken from Earth-orbiting satellites show how fre- 
quent are lightning discharges, occurring at about 100 per minute. If 
they average 15,000,000kw per strike, the annual total would be a 
prodigious 13,000,000,000kw/hrs per year. 6 Lightning discharges can 
reach 9 km (6 miles), and sheet lightning up to 100 km (62 miles). 


There is some evidence in recent years of a decline in thunderstorm 
activity. 7 

If this were the case, the implications for the protective ozone 
layer would be serious. Water particles have to be very fine in order 
to spin fast enough to produce an electrical discharge (the water 
atom is an electrical dipole). One of the features of more stormy 
weather is to produce a larger water drop that cannot spin fast 
enough to produce a significant electrical charge. 

Electricism and magnetism 

Viktor Schauberger coined the term 'electricism' for the effect that 
electricity has on life, which is destructive, dismantling, disintegra- 
tive and debilitating. Magnetism is the energy that circulates 
through and around the Earth on its polar axis. Electricism and 
magnetism are apparently contradictory (or dialectic partners, see 
p. 47). Together they form the electromagnetic whole, magnetism 
being the more cohering and life- affirming (female) of the two. Its 
higher state, biomagnetism, which is associated with living organ- 
isms and whose qualities are uplifting and upbuilding, is an energy 
responsible for the combining of elements in the creative process of 
building new life forms on a higher, more refined octave (e.g. the 
fourth dimension). Bioelectricism, on the other hand, is associated 
with the deconstructive aspect of organic life. 

As we saw in Chapter 3, bioelectricism and biomagnetism are 
complementary, but operate differently in contrasting functions, 
representing extremes of bielectromagnetic quality. As in all form- 
ative and life-building processes, both bioelectricism and biomag- 
netism are part of the action, but normally balance each other. 
However, in order for creative processes to be successful, biomag- 
netism must predominate. 

The Van Allen belts, encircling the Earth roughly over the area 
between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, form the radial 
expansive (centrifugal) electric (bioelectric) function of the Earth 
dynamo. The axial magnetic (biomagnetic) contractive (cen- 
tripetal) function is performed by the magnetic lines of force pass- 
ing through the centre of the Earth from the South to the North Pole 
and sweeping around the Earth globe from North to South. Between 
these two component forces, a pulsation, which is the hallmark of 
all living things, is created as electrical and magnetic moments 


alternately attain their maxima. According to Viktor Schauberger, 
these oscillations take place at such a high frequency that we can- 
not perceive them, and view them as a state of rest. 

Storms, water vapour and climate 

The amount of water evaporated annually from the oceans has been 
calculated to total about 333,000km 3 . 8 By comparison, the amount 
from rivers, lakes and land surfaces is more like in 62,000km 3 , or 
18.6% of the world's annual rainfall (395,000km 3 ). This has in the 
past been derived mostly from forests. However, the enormous 
deforestation of the last fifty years, particularly for agriculture and 
beef production, has led to a much higher evaporation rate from the 
Sun-exposed land surfaces. 

This leads to a higher volume of water vapour in the atmos- 
phere, which in turn increases the greenhouse effect, leading to 
higher temperatures which produce a further increase in evapora- 
tion from the oceans. 9 There is one feedback mechanism which alle- 
viates the increase in surface temperature; this is the increase in 
cloud cover as a result of the increased water vapour, increasing the 
reflection of the Sun's energy back into space (the albedo effect). 

While this additional water vapour will increase the general 
atmospheric temperatures, much of it will drift towards the poles 
due to the movement of the upper air streams, there to fall as snow, 
adding to the volume of water fixed almost permanently as ice. This 
abnormal water vapour content increases the amount of cloud 
cover, increasing the albedo effect by which the Sun's energy is 
reflected back into space from the clouds' surface. 10 

The catastrophic rainfall in some areas like Bangladesh and 
Mozambique and the severe drought conditions of central Africa 
and northern China are the result of this serious disturbance of the 
Earth's water balance. Man's destruction of the forest starts a chain 
reaction that precipitates the cumulative effects of an increasingly 
disrupted world climate. 



Water — the Source of Life 

8. The Nature of Water 

The Upholder of the Cycles, which supports the whole of Life, is 
WATER. In every drop of water dwells a Deity, whom we all serve; 
there also dwells Life, the Soul of the 'First' substance — Water — 
whose boundaries and banks are the capillaries that guide it and in 
which it circulates. 
Viktor Schauberger 1 

Our Earth is the planet of water. Seventy percent of the world's sur- 
face is covered by water. Our bodies are seventy-five percent water. 
It is essential to all life. Yet, our present science understands little of 
its real nature. We have no respect for water; we use it for transport- 
ing inappropriate substances, usually waste and pollutants. We 
destroy its complex structures by driving it through turbines, pipes 
or straightened riverbanks. We treat it as a commodity. Viktor 
Schauberger called it a living organism,'the blood of the Earth,' and 
insisted that in its various forms, as blood, sap or water, it is the 
basis of all life. 

Viktor Schauberger was known as 'The Water Wizard' because 
he made profound discoveries about its nature. His principal pre- 
occupation was with water as the key to all life, and its vital rela- 
tionship to the forest. He saw water as the foundation of all 
life-processes and the channel that nourishes and energizes all life. 
He also recognized it as a living entity, whose main function is to 
accumulate and transform the energies originating from the Earth 
and the Sun. The source of all our problems, according to 
Schauberger, is our failure to regard water as an organism; we 
arrest its creative processes and when it becomes our enemy it can 
do enormous damage. 

As a young man, searching for inspiration in his beloved forest, 
Viktor was sitting quietly by the bank of a pristine stream when 
he unexpectedly found that his consciousness entered the water. It 
connected with an intelligence in the water that spoke to him. It 
told him what movements it needed to make in order to stay 
healthy, and under what conditions. It was from this mystical 
experience that he built up his awareness of how healthy water is 

essential for the creation and maintenance of all life. Water needs 
to flow in a particular dynamic way, and must not become over- 
heated. Movement and temperature are the key criteria for water, 
and therefore for all life. 

Still water is passive; it is amorphous and apparently lifeless. As 
soon as it begins to move, it is filled with surfaces that define little 
structures, convoluted in form, and with magical vortical shapes. 
The nature of water is to move. When it is active it comes alive; in 
movement it fulfils its potential, which is to bring life. 

When it is immature, water takes, absorbing minerals with a 
voracious appetite, to give back the much needed nourishment to 
its environment only when mature as a mountain spring. Water has 
a memory; when we think we have 'purified' water of the chemicals 
and hormones we have mindlessly thrown in, in order to make it 
drinkable, the energy of these contaminants remain, polluting our 
energy bodies in the same way that chemicals affect our physical 
bodies. Because of its nature, water sacrifices itself entirely to the 
environment, for good or for bad. 

People mocked Viktor when he insisted that water behaves like 
a living organism. When it has reached maturity water displays 
amazing properties. He showed how, when it is vibrant and 
healthy, it pulsates, twists and spirals in a very specific way that 
maintains its vitality and purity, enabling it to fulfil its function 
for all organisms as an energy channel and a conveyor of nutrients 
and waste. 

If we watch water streaming down an inclining road after a 
shower of rain, or a rivulet on the sloping beach sand towards the 
sea, we will notice how it pushes down in a jerky rhythm, as pulsa- 
tions. That is because water is alive — it actually does pulsate, just 
as blood pulsates through the veins and arteries of the body. But the 
most miraculous fact about water is that it has the power of self- 
purification, and can restore its generative properties in the same 
way that other living things can heal themselves. 

In all symbolic traditions, water is linked with the emotions. It is 
the emotions that open us out to life, that make us sensitive, recep- 
tive and compassionate. Artists love water for its inspiration; it has 
the ability to stimulate awareness and imagination. I am fortunate 
to live by a stream; the murmur of a little waterfall by my gate has 
the quality of calming my emotions. The sounds of water are very 
evocative; the 'plop' of a drop on a pool surface echoes in the cave; 


the rhythmic crescendo and fall of the waves hitting the rocks, or 
the swish and suck of the waves on the beach. 

Current wisdom accepts that water is important because it is the 
most common substance on the Earth's surface, and that it is the 
main physical constituent of all living organisms. But conventional 
science regards water only as inorganic, with no life of its own. 

The memory of water 

Water's reputation as a powerful solvent derives from its electro- 
magnetic qualities. The positive hydrogen atoms in the water mol- 
ecule attract to themselves negative ions from the substance they 
are in contact with, while the oxygen atom with a double negative 
charge joins up with positive ions, so that balance is maintained. In 
this way water breaks down and dissolves substances into their con- 
stituent parts, taking oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the 
air, and calcium, potassium, sodium and manganese, etc, from the 
rocks. Water continually collects substances from one source, 
depositing them, usually as building blocks for new growth, some- 
where else. 

When water is flowing as its nature dictates, energetically in 
spirals and vortices, it creates the structure necessary for it to carry 
constructive information. These are microclusters of vibrating 
energy centres, constantly receiving and transmuting energy from 
every contact the water body makes. Despite water's fluidity and its 
ability constantly to change its state, the molecules, if conditions 
permit, generally organize themselves into structures. The vortical 

Fig. 8.1. These 'drop' pictures show the 
structure of water. 

The first is of living spring water with its 
structure complete; the second downstream after 
domestic sewage and industrial effluents, with a 
trace of rudimentary development, but no 
formative capacity; a third taken from further 
down the stream will show how it has, through 
its natural spiralling movement, rebuilt the 
water's structure. 

New techniques are now being developed for 
demonstrating photographically the structure of 
water, e.g. through magnetic resonance 
equipment, of which the best known are the 
experiments of Dr Masuru Emoto with ice 



movement creates the microclusters and also a complex laminar 
structure that generates energy from the interaction of their plane 
surfaces against each. These structures can be observed with a 
suitable microscope. The more powerful the vortical action, the 
greater the storage capacity of information (like adding memory to 
your computer). Thus water put through Viktor Schauberger's 
implosion (powerfully vorticized) process (see Chapter 18) has the 
ability to enhance the energy of organisms with which it comes in 
contact. The clusters have the ability to store vibrational impres- 
sions or imprints. If these are beneficial, they may be able to restore 
healthy resonance in the human body, as through homeopathy. On 
the other hand if they are the imprints of toxins or pollutants in the 
drinking water, they may be carriers of disharmony and disease 
(seep. 119). 

Viktor demonstrated that water as an organism has a life cycle 
from birth, through maturation to death. When it is treated with 
disrespect or ignorant handling, instead of bringing life and vital- 
ity, it becomes anti-life, facilitating pathogenic processes in the 
organisms it inhabits, which initiate physical decay and eventually 
bring death. One of Schauberger's more controversial discoveries 
was that water that has been structurally damaged takes on nega- 
tive energy that precipitates deterioration in the human being, 
affecting our actual moral, mental and spiritual wellbeing. 

The creation of water 

Where does water come from? No one really knows. It is one of 
Nature's mysteries. Its source cannot be the upper atmosphere for, 
as we saw in Chapter 7, the water molecule is actually broken 
down at high altitudes. The only other source must be the Earth 
herself. Fascinating research done by the American Stephan Riess 
in 1934 showed that enormous quantities of virgin water could be 
obtained from crystalline rocks. A combination of geothermal 
heat and a process known as triboluminescence, a glow which 
electrons in the rocks discharge as a result of friction or violent 
pressure, can actually release the oxygen and hydrogen gases in 
certain ore-bearing rocks. This process, called cold oxidation, can 
form virgin water. 2 

Riess was able to tap straight into formations of hard desert rock 
of the right composition and produce as much as 3,000 gallons per 


minute. Unfortunately, his efforts to provide needy areas with copi- 
ous quantities of high quality, fresh water were thwarted by Cali- 
fornian politicians with vested interests, and he was persecuted 
relentlessly. His experiments should now be replicated. 

Water is conventionally described as H 2 0, having two hydrogen 
atoms, each carrying a positive external charge, and one oxygen 
atom carrying two negative external charges. It has, however, been 
analysed to contain 18 different compounds and 15 separate types 
of ions. 3 Both seawater and our bodies contain 84 elements in the 
same proportion. There is 4% salt in our blood; in the oceans it is 
also 4%. 

Water is not a straightforward substance with its own identity, 
for it takes on the qualities of the medium in which it moves, or the 
organism in which it resides. It has the unusual ability of being able 
to combine with more elements and compounds than any other 
molecule and is sometimes described as the universal solvent. Vik- 
tor called it an 'emulsion' when it is supercharged with these cre- 
ative, 'fructigenic' energies. The more diverse the make-up of 
constituents dissolved or suspended in water, the more complex 
the emulsion and the broader the range of its properties. (Carbon, 
its so-called inorganic counterpart, has a similar capacity that no 
other elements possess.) Water is found in three physical states: 
solid as ice, liquid as water and gaseous as water vapour. It also 
comes in many guises and forms: it is saline and fresh, it is blood 
and it is sap. 

The anomaly point of water 

The density of water is crucial to its behaviour. It is at its densest 
and has its greatest energy content at a temperature of +4°C 
(39°F). This is the so-called 'anomaly point,' which has a major 
influence on its quality. Viktor called the temperature of +4°C 
(39°F) the state of indifference of water, meaning that when in its 
highest natural condition of health, vitality and life-giving poten- 
tial, water is at an internal state of energetic equilibrium and in a 
thermally and spatially neutral condition. Above a temperature of 
+4°C (39°F), water expands. Below this temperature it also begins 
to expand and become lighter in weight. Because of this ice floats 
and is able to protect the fish in the water below from extremes of 


It was very convenient for Nature to arrange that mammals and 
other creatures should depend on blood. In the body, the tempera- 
ture of the blood (composed 90% of water) is almost exactly the 
same as the temperature of water at its point of lowest specific heat 
of +37°C (+98.4°F). This means that our bodies are able to tolerate 
a wide range of ambient temperatures, for a great amount of heat or 
cold is required to change the temperature of water. But it also holds 
on to heat well; good for body temperature and for domestic heat- 
ing systems. 

We are familiar with the principle that the normal temperature 
of blood in the human body is +37°C (+98.4°F). A very small 
change in that temperature indicates sickness. It is the same with 
water and with sap. Schauberger demonstrated this to the world- 
renowned hydraulicist, Professor Philipp Forchheimer by putting 
some hot water into a mountain stream. The marginal rise in tem- 
perature downstream caused the complex structure of the water 
filaments to break down, so that a trout that they had observed 
holding its station in the torrent was unable to stay, and was swept 
downstream. Forchheimer was dumbfounded, because conven- 
tional science does not recognize the importance of small temper- 
ature differences. 

If science were able to see water as possessing as well as giving 
life, it would be a giant step towards the rehabilitation of water in 
human society. Schauberger wrote: 

Were water actually what hydrologists deem it to be — a 
chemically inert substance — then a long time ago there 
would already have been no water and no life in this Earth. I 
regard water as the blood of the Earth. Its internal process, 
while not identical to that of our blood, is nonetheless very 
similar. It is this process that gives water its movement. 4 

The symbol H 2 represents pure or distilled water. Schauberger 
called it 'juvenile' water, because it has no developed character or 
qualities. It is raw and hungry. Like a baby, it grasps at everything 
within reach. If you drink only this juvenile water, it will weaken and 
eventually kill you because it leaches out the minerals and trace ele- 
ments from your body. Water is mature when it is suitably enriched 
with raw material, what we call 'impurities,' on which other organ- 
isms depend for their energy and life. 


The qualities of different waters 

Although good water is tasteless, without colour or smell, it 
quenches our thirst like nothing else. In order to be healthy, we need 
to drink, according to some authorities, 1-2 litres (5-9 pints) of 
good quality water a day. 5 Some types of water are more suitable for 
drinking than others. In Chapter 12 we shall consider some of the 
choices we have of improving the quality of the available water 
before we drink it. High quality water should contain elements of 
both geospheric (female) and atmospheric (male). 

Distilled Water 

Considered physically and chemically to be the purest form of 
water. Its nature is to extract or attract to itself all the substances it 
needs to become mature itself, and therefore absorbs everything 
within reach. Such water is really quite dangerous if drunk contin- 
uously long-term. The 'Kneipp cure' uses distilled water for its 
short-term therapeutic effect, where it acts to purge the body of 
excessive deposits of particular substances. 


If it has not been affected by industrial pollution (acid rain), rain- 
water is the purest naturally available water. Slightly richer through 
the absorption of atmospheric gases, it is still unsuitable for drink- 
ing in the long term. When drunk as melted snow-water, it also gives 
rise to certain deficiencies and if no other water is available it can 
on occasion result in goitre, the enlargement of the thyroid gland. 

Juvenile Water 

Juvenile water is immature water from deep underground sources, 
like geysers. It has not mellowed sufficiently on its passage through 
the ground. It has not developed a mature structure and contains 
some minerals (geospheric elements), but few gases (atmospheric 
elements), so as drinking water it is not very high grade (cf most spa 
waters which arise from mineral rich depths). 

Surface Water 

Water from dams and reservoirs contain some minerals and salts 
absorbed through contact with the soil and the atmosphere. Its 


quality deteriorates through exposure to the Sun, to excessive 
warming and to chemicals and other pollutants. Although most 
urban communities now depend on this source, generally speaking 
it is not good quality water. 


Groundwater has a higher quality due to a larger amount of dis- 
solved carbons and other trace salts. This is water emanating from 
lower levels, seeping out at the surface after passage along an imper- 
vious rock surface. Often this is now polluted by the chemicals of 
industrial agriculture. 

Spring Water 

True spring water has a large amount of dissolved carbons and min- 
erals. Its high quality is often shown by its shimmering, vibrant 
bluish colour. The product of infiltrating rainwater (full comple- 
ment of atmospheric gases) and geospheric water (full complement 
of minerals, salts and trace elements), this is the best water for 
drinking, and it often retains this quality in the upper reaches of a 
mountain stream. Commercially bottled 'springwater' is unfortu- 
nately not always of the best quality — many are not from true 
springs — even if it is bottled in glass rather than the plastic which 
impairs its quality. 

Other Groundwater 

Artesian water is obtained from boreholes and is of unpredictable 
quality. It may be saline, brackish, or fresh. Water from wells can 
vary from good to poor, depending on how deep is the well and what 
stratum of water is tapped, and they can be polluted by nitrates and 

How the river protects itself 

Schauberger saw water as being conceived in the cool, dark cradle 
of the virgin forest. As it slowly rises from the depths, water 
matures. It absorbs minerals and trace elements on its upward path. 
Only when it is ripe will it emerge as a spring. A true spring, (com- 
pared to a seepage spring), has a water temperature of about +4°C 
(39 °F). In the cool, scattered light of the forest water begins its long 
journey down the valley as a lively, sparkling and gurgling stream. 


Water, when it is alive, creates this spiralling, convoluting motion to 
retain its coolness and maintain its vital inner energies and health. 
It is thus able to convey the necessary minerals, trace elements and 
other subtle energies to the surrounding environment. Have you 
noticed how refreshing and enlivening it is to sit by a healthy bub- 
bling stream? 

Naturally flowing water seeks to protect itself from the damag- 
ing direct light of the Sun. The reason that you find trees and shrubs 
growing on the banks of streams is not from people planting them, 
but because the energies from the flowing stream facilitated their 
growth there, to shade the water. When a stream is able to maintain 
its energies, it will rarely overflow its banks. In its natural motion, 
the faster it flows, the greater its carrying capacity and scouring 
ability and the more it deepens its bed (Fig. 8.2). 

Schauberger discovered the reason for this — that in-winding, 
longitudinal spiral vortices form down the central axis of the cur- 
rent, moving alternately clockwise and anti-clockwise. The nature 
of inwardly-spiralling vortical movement is to cool. So these com- 
plex water movements constantly cool and re-cool the water, main- 
taining it at a healthy temperature, leading to a faster, more laminar, 
spiral flow, ejecting or transforming undesirable substances. 

As the stream gets bigger, it is less able to protect itself from 
light and heat, and it begins to lose its vitality and health, and with 
this its ability to energize the environment through which it passes. 

Fig. 8.2. A longitudinal vortex showing 
laminar flow about the central axis. 
The coldest water filaments are always closest to 
the central axis of flow. Thermal stratification 
occurs even with minimal differences in water 
temperature. The central core water displays the 
least turbulence and accelerates ahead, drawing 
the rest of the water-body in its wake. 



Ultimately becoming a broad river, the increasing silt content 
makes the water flow more sluggishly and become more opaque. 
This, however, protects the lower strata from the heat of the Sun. 
They remain cooler, retaining the spiral, vortical motion which is 
able to shift sediment of larger grain-size (pebbles, gravel, etc.) 
from the centre of the watercourse, and keep down the risk of 
flooding. This motion also discourages the generation of harmful 
bacteria and the water remains disease-free. 

Viktor Schauberger wrote in 1933 in his book, Our Senseless Toil, 
how he was able to put to practical use his discoveries about water: 

It is possible to regulate watercourses over any given distance 
without embankment works; to transport timber and other 
materials, even when heavier than water, for example ore, 
stones, etc., down the centre of such watercourses; to raise the 
height of the water table in the surrounding countryside and 
to endow the water with all those elements necessary for the 
prevailing vegetation. 6 

The temperature gradient 

One of Viktor Schauberger's most important discoveries was to do 
with temperature. He showed how small variations of temperature 
are as crucial to the healthy movement of water and sap as they are 
for the human blood. He clarified this by identifying temperature 
change in its relationship to the anomaly point of water +4°C 
(39.2°F). When the temperature departs from this anomaly point, 
either up or down, it is said to have a negative gradient. When it 
approaches the anomaly point, from either direction, or when the 
groundwater is colder than the air temperature, it has a positive gra- 
dient. Heat always moves towards cold. 

In the natural process of synthesis and decomposition in all 
waters, trees and other living organisms, both the rising and falling 
temperature gradients are active. Each form of gradient has its spe- 
cial function in Nature's great production; the positive (cooling) 
temperature gradient must play the principal role if evolution is to 
unfold creatively. 

This important factor affects all the features of a river, such as flow 
velocity, tractive force (shear force), sediment load, turbidity, and vis- 
cosity, and everything to do with water management generally, like its 


storage and transport through pipes (see Chapter 12). It is because 
modern hydrologists do not recognize the temperature gradient that 
they are unable to prevent rivers flooding or to deliver better quality 
water to our homes. 

In Nature, the positive gradient is used for creating and building 
life forms, the negative for breaking down as part of recycling. Bio- 
diversity and evolution, in order continually to develop more com- 
plex life systems, require the finer energies that a predominating 
positive temperature gradient will provide. These two temperature 
gradients co-exist in the same environment because they have com- 
plementary roles. The problem with our civilization is that we have 
allowed the negative to become dominant, so we have disappear- 
ance of species, and the prevalence of coarser energies that result 
from a degenerating environment. 

The quality of any process in Nature depends on the relative 
influence of the positive and negative temperature gradients. The 
way the two forms of temperature interact is of crucial importance, 
for this affects not only the movement of water, but sap in plants and 
the flow of blood in our veins. It also determines the configuration, 
structure and quality of the channels, ducts and vessels surround- 
ing and guiding them, as we shall see later. 

Schauberger called the stronger temperature behaviours 
essences,' for they have a critical effect in creating life forms. For 
example, if the positive temperature gradient is very powerful, then 
the reciprocally weaker negative temperature gradient will help the 
manifesting of a high quality substance in material form. On the 
other hand, if the negative temperature gradient is dominant, what 
manifests is a material substance of poor quality. For evolution and 
growth to proceed with increasing quality, vitality and health, which 
form is uppermost and at what level is significant. 

Flowing water behaves according to whichever temperature gra- 
dient is active. The positive temperature gradient builds up living 
systems by cooling, concentrating, and energizing as it approaches 
+4°C (39°F). The key to this process of healthy growth and devel- 
opment is that the ionized substances are drawn together into inti- 
mate and productive contact, and the contained oxygen becomes 
passive and is easily bound by the cool carbones, 7 the building 
blocks of life. The increasing warming of the negative temperature 
gradient however, reduces the cohering energy and loosens the 
structure of an organism and the forms start disintegrating. The 


oxygen becomes increasingly aggressive and instead of helping to 
build structures, pulls them apart, encouraging pathogenic disease. 

If only our science would recognize the importance of tempera- 
ture in natural processes and we could rapidly implement changes 
throughout our technologies, the effect on our environment would 
be immediate. Our current environmental crises are not limited to 
increasing global warming through entropic heat pollution. If our 
technologies were more eco-friendly, there would quickly be a mag- 
nifying effect of balancing in the environment, a positive feedback 
effect, because Nature is always seeking balance. We seem to think 
that working with Nature is like trying to be honest in our lives (a 
nice thing to do). In fact Nature's need for balance is so powerful 
that once we began seriously to work with true ecological integrity, 
we would be amazed how our efforts would be reciprocated and 
amplified by Nature. 

Schauberger demonstrated, not only that living water possesses 
extraordinary healing properties, but that it is possible, by design- 
ing machines which follow Nature's dynamic processes, to produce 
this living water from lifeless water. 

In this way it is possible to produce quality drinking water for 
humans, beasts and for plants artificially, but in the way that 
it occurs in Nature; to render timber and other such materials 
non-flammable and rot resistant; to raise water in a vertical 
pipe without pumping devices; to produce any amount of 
electricity and radiant energy almost without cost; to raise 
soil quality and to heal cancer, tuberculosis and nervous dis- 

... The practical implementation of this... would without 
doubt require a complete reorientation of all areas of science 
and technology. By applying these new found laws, I have 
already built some large structures for log-rafting and river 
regulation, which have functioned faultlessly for a decade, 
and which today still baffle the water hydraulics experts. 8 


9. The Hydrological Cycle 

In the same way that blood flows through the arteries and veins of 
the human body, so does water through the lithosphere of the Earth. 
The cyclical movement of water from subterranean regions to the 
atmosphere and back again is called 'the hydrological or water 
cycle.' Today this complete circulation of water is usually inter- 
rupted by human intervention, being limited to the atmosphere and 
the Earth's surface. Viktor called this the half hydrological cycle, the 
shortcomings of which contribute significantly to our present cli- 
mate change. 

The full hydrological cycle 

The diagram below (Fig. 9.1) shows the full hydrological cycle. At 
the left hand side the upward, anti-clockwise spirals indicate the 
evaporation of water from the sea. This rises, condenses and falls as 
rain. Some sinks into the earth and some drains away over the 
ground surface, depending on whether the ground is forested and 
what type of temperature gradient is active. In areas of natural for- 
est where a positive temperature gradient normally prevails about 
85% of rainfall is retained, 15% by the vegetation and humus and 
about 70% sinking to the groundwater aquifer and underground 
stream recharge. 

This underground recharge is important, because water that is 
linked to the subterranean water system acquires the negative energy 
charge of the Earth. In a natural forest, the mature trees with deep 
roots bring up this negatively charged water, along with vital miner- 
als and trace elements from the deeper soils. As we shall see in Chap- 
ter 14, trees act as biocondensers, harmonizing the positive energy 
from the Sun with the negative energy of the Earth. As a result, the 
evapo-transpiration from the leaves of the trees is a balanced, cre- 
ative energy. This is shown in the diagram as a different direction of 
spiral from the evaporation from the oceans, to indicate its superior 
quality. The forest, as a more dynamic living system, creates transpi- 
ration that carries the energy (nonmaterial) imprint of all the reso- 
nances of the complex biosystem, including the subterranean 


Fig. 9. 1 . The full hydrological cycle. The FULL CYCLE of water, is characterized by the following phases: 

Evaporation from oceans and evapo-transpiration from 
Rising water vapour; 
Cooling and condensing; 
Formation of clouds; 
Precipitation as rain; 

Infiltrates the ground under positive temperature gradient; 

Recharge of groundwater and aquifers; 

Maintenance and regulation of height of groundwater; 

Formation of+4°C centre-layer of the groundwater; 

Creation of underground retention basins; 

Passage through the +4°C centre-layer of the groundwater; 

Purification at this temperature; 

Further sinking into the subterranean aquifers due to its own 

Transition to a vaporous state due to the influence of the 
Earth's hot interior 

Rising again towards the ground surface with the simultane- 
ous uptake of nutrients; 

Cooling of the water and deposition of nutrients; 
Draining away over the ground surface; 
Evaporating and forming clouds; 
Falling again as rain — and so on. 


elements. Rainfall generated from the forest will carry this beneficial 
influence. The ocean, although it is recharged by undersea volcanic 
eruptions and exposure to the atmosphere, mainly consumes all it 
produces and therefore lacks these dynamic qualities. 

This is best explained in terms of homeopathic theory, in which 
the greater the dilution of a substance, the more powerful its ener- 
getic effect. One of the most important discoveries by Professor 
Jacques Benveniste is that water (even in the form of vapour) car- 
ries information. 1 The implication of this is that our tap water may 
contain the energies that are recycled from human sources, but also 
that water can be imbued with a healing energy that can be used to 
treat other water. Some of the domestic water treatment systems 
now available use this principle. 

In the full cycle, water evaporates from the forest and the oceans. 
The rising water vapour cools with altitude, condenses, forms clouds, 
with the help of dimethyl sulphide emitted from the leaf protoplasms 
and from marine algae, combines into larger drops and falls as rain. 
With full forest cover the temperature of the land surface is cooler 
than the falling rain, which readily soaks into the ground because of 
the positive temperature gradient. In other words, the temperature 
decreases from the atmosphere, through the earth towards the central 
layer of the water-saturated ground where the temperature is +4°C 
(39°F). As it falls on the cooler ground, the warmer rain is easily 
absorbed; it replenishes the groundwater, developing subterranean 
aquifers. Vegetation depends on groundwater being recharged by 
rainwater entering under a positive temperature gradient (Fig. 9.1). 

The temperature range that life on Earth has adapted to lies 
roughly between -10°C (14°F) and +40°C (104°F). It is the balanced 
greenhouse effect that maintains this range. As global temperatures 
rise with global warming, the stress on all life forms is immense, 
because they do not have time to adapt to the new conditions. 

Water vapour is the principal greenhouse gas. The reduction in 
evapo-transpiration from the dynamic forests substantially affects 
the quality of the water vapour and its distribution in the atmos- 
phere. The water vapour created by the natural forest has been bal- 
anced by fertile energies from the Earth that bring with it the power 
to stimulate and heal. Water vapour from the oceans has more of the 
raw untamed energy of the Sun, and global warming increases the 
evaporation from the oceans. Without the forest's water, there is a 
greater contrast between areas with abundant water vapour and 


those with almost none. This greatly disrupts weather patterns, with 
an increase in violent storms, hurricanes and serious flooding near 
coasts, while the areas away from coastal winds suffer droughts and 
freezing night temperatures. 

The half hydrological cycle 

Without forest cover, the ground surface overheats, causing a nega- 
tive temperature gradient in the soil. This means that the cooler rain 
cannot penetrate into the warmer ground, and fast surface runoff in 
areas of heavy rainfall causes catastrophic floods. The cause of the 
floods in recent years, in Columbia, Mozambique, Assam and 
Bangladesh was the deforestation on high ground. 

This disruption of the natural water cycle Schauberger called 
the half hydrological cycle, which is now prevalent almost world- 
wide. Notice the difference between Fig. 9.2 below and Fig. 9.1 on 
p. 118. The drawing below shows that, in the absence of tree cover, 
the water table has sunk. Once the forest has been removed, the 
exposed ground heats up rapidly, all the more so if dry, and to 
much higher temperatures. 

This type of evaporation, now lacking the evapo-transpiration 
from living things, has more destructive energies. If the rainfall is 
excessive, then flooding inevitably occurs. In many hot countries 
denuded of vegetation, dry valleys and creeks can be suddenly 
engulfed by a wall of water as terrifying flash-floods sweep away 
everything in their path. 

In the absence of trees and ground cover to absorb it, the rainwa- 
ter spreads widely over the surface of the ground, resulting in massive 
abnormal re-evaporation. The increase in water vapour in the atmos- 
phere soon causes increased precipitation. What happens is that one 
flood causes another, while in inland areas, droughts become more 
frequent. The only answer to this vicious cycle is a massive interna- 
tional campaign to plant trees, particularly in the warmer latitudes. 

The most serious result of the half cycle is that there is no replen- 
ishment of the groundwater. With the sinking of the groundwater 
level, the supply of nutrients to the vegetation is cut off. The water 
that is evaporated into the atmosphere is virtually lifeless, lacking in 
the energy and the qualities that groundwater acquires. Viktor 
Schauberger called this a 'biological short-circuit.' The essential soil 
moisture, trace elements and other nutrients that the tree roots nor- 


mally raise to the benefit of other plants sink below reach as the 
groundwater sinks. This is the cause of desertification, now becom- 
ing prevalent in many tropical areas. The groundwater disappears, 
probably for ever, into the womb of the Earth where it came from. 

The limited circulation of the half water cycle increases the inten- 
sity of thunderstorms. These can raise the water vapour to levels far 
higher than normal. At altitudes of 40-80 kilometres it is exposed to 
much stronger ultraviolet and high-energy gamma radiation, which 
break up the water-molecule, separating the hydrogen and oxygen 

The HALF CYCLE in contrast, has the following features: Fig. 9.2. The half hydrological cycle. 

Evaporation from oceans; 
Rising water vapour; 
Cooling and condensing; 
Formation of clouds; 
Precipitation as rain; 

No infiltration due to negative temperature gradient; 

Rapid runoff over the ground surface; 

No groundwater recharge; 

Sinking water table — in the long term; 

Cessation of natural supply of nutrients to vegetation; 

Under certain conditions, major flooding can occur; 

Excessively fast re-evaporation; 

Oversaturation of atmosphere with water vapour; 

Rapid reprecipitation as storm rain. 


Fig. 9.3 a&b. Positive and negative 
temperature gradients: 
Fig. 9.3 a illustrates a positive temperature 
gradient — ground cooler shaded by trees — 
rainwater warmer than the ground surface will 
soak in easily, recharging the groundwater. But 
where the surface is unprotected (Fig. 9.3 b) it 
heats up, does not allow the rainwater to 
penetrate (negative temperature gradient), causing 
the water table to be forced upwards, with the 
dissolved salts, which remain near the surface, 
possibly causing problems of salination. 

I V- 1 ' f*\ tnmnaraliirn nf 1 " I 

temperature of 
incident rain 

1 ■ s i ' ■ " 1 : : ■ 

lemperature of exposed 
ground surface +20 


atoms. The hydrogen then rises because of its lower specific weight, 
and the oxygen sinks. That water becomes permanently lost. The 
effect of global warming is complex. The atmosphere first warms up 
due to the greater amount of water vapour, some of this increase of 
heat being offset by the loss of water atoms at high altitudes. 

Temperature gradients and nutrient supply 

As we have seen, unless vegetation keeps the ground surface cooler 
than the falling rain, the water will not easily penetrate the soil. The 
direction of the temperature gradient indicates the direction of 
movement. Energy or nutrient transfer is always from heat to cold. 
So a positive temperature gradient is also essential for nutrients to 
be able to rise up to the roots of the plants (see Fig. 9.3). 2 

If the surface is well forested, the rainwater is warmer than the 
soil, and penetrates to the lower strata, replenishing the groundwa- 
ter body and the aquifers. The salts remain at a level where they can- 
not pollute the upper strata where they would harm those plants 
which are salt-sensitive. The groundwater hugs the configuration of 
the ground surface. Fig. 9.3 shows how the salts in the ground rise 
near the surface, particularly on a hilltop, when part of the forest is 
cut down, leaving the ground exposed to sunlight. 

Schauberger demonstrated that when light and air are absent 
well below the surface of the ground, the minerals and salts are pre- 
cipitated near the temperature horizon of +4°C (39°F). Warm 
ground will encourage evaporation of the moisture near the surface, 
so that the minerals and salts are deposited near the surface, lower- 
ing the fertility of the soil. If all the trees are removed (Fig. 9.4), there 
will be no penetration of rainwater; the water table initially rises, 
due to the now uncompensated upward pressure from below 
described in the following chapter, bringing up all the salts, but will 
eventually sink or disappear altogether without the replenishment 
of rainwater. Fertility can be restored in time only through reforesta- 
tion, bringing about the reestablishment of a positive temperature 

Replanting must be done initially with salt-loving trees and 
other primitive plants, as only they would survive under such con- 
ditions. Later, due to the cooling of the ground by the shading of the 
pioneer trees, the rainwater can penetrate the ground, taking the 
salts with it. Over time, as the soil climate improves the pioneer 


+12 "C +11 °C +10 °C +9=C +8"C +7°C +6' 

Fig. 9.4. Asymmetric river development. 
The orientation of a river relative to the Sun's 
position affects the nutrient supply. Where the 
river flows east > west or west > east, the side 
nearest the Sun tends to be more shaded and the 
water cooler; a positive temperature gradient 
develops, allowing the cooler ground to absorb 
mineral-rich waterfront the river, and the soil 
becomes more fertile. On the side exposed to the 
Sun, the reverse occurs, with a negative 
temperature gradient forcing groundwater, with its 
minerals to leach into the river. 

trees die off, because the improved soil conditions don't suit them. 
Other species of tree can replace them and the dynamic balance of 
Nature is restored. 

Irrigation in hot climates aggravates the problem because, as the 
ground temperatures cool during the night, the irrigating water can 
penetrate the upper salt-containing strata. With the increase in tem- 
perature during the day, the infiltrated irrigation water with its 
acquired salts are drawn up, and upon exposure to light and heat are 
deposited on the soil surface. The seriousness of the problem will 
vary with latitude, height and season. 

All healthy rivers will carry nutrients in suspension that will 
be absorbed by the vegetation on the river banks if the soil is 
cooler than the river water. This improves soil fertility and 
recharges the groundwater. But, if the soil is warmer than the 
river, due to the absence of protective cover, a negative tempera- 
ture gradient will cause the nutrients to leach from the soil into 
the river, which will eventually make the soil sterile and unpro- 
ductive. The longer a river flows through irrigated, sunlit farm- 
lands, the more it becomes contaminated with salts, artificial 



fertilizers and pesticides, making it unhealthy in the lower 
reaches as a source of water. 

In the diagram (Fig. 9.4) opposite, the river water temperature 
varies from +17°C (63°F) at the surface to +13°C (55°F) at the bot- 
tom. Where the ground under the wooded area on one side of the river 
is cooler than the river water, a positive temperature gradient exists 
from river to ground. On the opposite side, in the absence of trees, the 
ground is warmer and attracts a negative gradient from river to 
ground. The diagram shows nutrients being removed from the 
warmer bank and deposited on the opposite, cooler bank. 

Where the tree cover cools the river, it flows faster with a lami- 
nar structure, removing sediment and deepening its bed. 

The rivers are the arteries of Gaia. If they are not allowed to oper- 
ate as natural conveyors of energy and nutrients to the land through 
which they flow, the fertility of the land gravely suffers. If we were 
really to take care of our rivers, protecting their banks from over- 
heating, and allowing them to flow sinuously as they will, rather 
than make them follow straight lines, we would be taking important 
steps to give back to Nature her own power. 


10. The Formation of Springs 

Before the installation of public water networks, springs were the 
most valued or sometimes the only sources of drinking water, and 
they still are in many parts of the world. Settlements would estab- 
lish around a spring that delivered high quality water. Possibly 
because of the connection between living water and good health, 
some established a reputation for curative powers. Viktor 
Schauberger insisted that the high quality water produced by his 
springwater machine had healing qualities. 

The veneration of springs 

Springs have long been associated with folk medicine, ritual and 
religion, frequently being reported as places of power in the land- 
scape. Usually, springs thus endowed are called 'holy wells' which is 
confusing, because the word derives from the Anglo-Saxon for 
spring — wella, (hence the expression to 'well up') not for its mod- 
ern use as a shaft excavated to reach the underground water table. 
The tradition of venerated springs is found in all cultures and major 
religions, including the earliest known to us. The most common 
association is the bestowal of supernatural qualities, but more 
specifically as the abode of spirits or deities, or being linked with 
holy figures or saints. In Britain, in most cases the saints named had 
no connection with the site, but their qualities may be associated 
with those the previous pagans had ascribed. 

The waters of most sacred springs are credited with healing 
powers, and with cures accomplished by bathing or drinking. In 
British lore the most common affliction claimed to be healed by 
springs is infertility, followed by eye complaints. However some 
springs are regarded as so powerful — as at Lourdes in France, or 
Bath in England — that they are reputed to heal many diseases. 
Offerings were made to the pools served by the springs, either as 
part of the locally established ritual, or as a 'trade' for a wish to be 
granted. Many 'wells' were 'dressed,' or decorated with flowers, 
paintings, statues or strips of cloth, a tradition found all over Europe 
and Asia, in Africa and Central America. 


Fig. 10.1. Seepage spring. 
Seepage springs occur when water infiltrating the 
ground (positive temperature gradient) 
encountering an impervious layer, seeps down this 
slope emerging where it meets the ground surface. 
The amount of the infiltrations determines the 
outflow rate and its temperature that of the 
surrounding area, seldom very cold. 

Natural springs would be valued also because the quality and 
reliability of the water flow in times of drought might make the dif- 
ference between life and death. It is not hard to see why people 
invested these sites with magical powers, or seeing them as inhab- 
ited by a living spirit who was the guardian of the waters. It is likely 
that many of our forebears would empathize with Viktor 
Schauberger's vision of water as 'the blood of the Earth' when they 
saw the pure, cold, nourishing liquid issuing mysteriously from the 
womb of the Earth. 

Rivers frequently have their source at a spring. 1 The source of a 
great holy river is regarded as particularly sacred. Many churches 
and monastic institutions are associated with springs, the churches 
using the water for baptism. The monasteries pioneered the capping 
of the springs to deliver the water through wooden or stone 'con- 
duits.' These proved to be the salvation of growing urban popula- 
tions in England who, after the dissolution of the monasteries in the 
sixteenth century, would take 'feathers,' or branch pipes, off these 
monastic conduits. Like the springs from which they derived, in 
some localities these conduits were often venerated and adorned 
with flowers and gilded branches. 


When the rationalism of the Enlightenment replaced the super- 
stitions of an earlier age, some explanation had to found for the cur- 
ative powers of certain famous springs. This led, in the 18th century, 
to the birth of the spa culture, and doctors would examine any 
deposits left behind when they had boiled away the water, in order 
to identify this and that mineral as the true elixir that would give 
legitimacy to their spa water. During the Protestant Reformation in 
England, and then with the decline of rural populations, many 
sacred springs fell into disuse, being rediscovered by Irish immi- 
grants in the nineteenth century, whose Celtic-based Catholicism 
still had strong pagan roots. 

Today, with the revival of ancient rural traditions, many sacred 
springs are being restored in Britain and in Continental Europe. 

Seepage springs 

What is generally understood as a spring is actually not a true 
spring, but a seepage spring which is the overflowing of surplus 
water from soil and rock strata that have a limited depth (Fig. 10.1). 
Rainwater which is warmer than the ground (a positive tempera- 
ture gradient), soaks in and descends until it reaches an impervi- 
ous layer like clay, which channels it out as a stream to the surface 
again, lower down. It acts by gravity. The temperature of the water 
will be that of the strata from which it emerges, probably between 
+6°C (43°F) to +9°C (48°F). This water will contain some trace ele- 
ments, minerals and dissolved salts but, generally speaking, not in 
such a broad spectrum as true springs. The seepage spring 
responds quickly to variations in precipitation, frequently drying 
up in a hot summer, and flowing strongly after heavy rain. 

True springs 

A true spring originates from much deeper strata (Fig. 10.2). 
Water collects in ancient aquifers and retaining basins over many 
years, and the water emerging to the surface might be hundreds of 
years old; or even thousands in the case of the famous therapeu- 
tic hot springs. Because of their age, these spa waters are extraor- 
dinarily rich in well-balanced minerals. The rich waters of the 
Hunza Valley in Pakistan, or the Caucasus mountains, which are 
credited for the longevity of the local people, also originate in true 


+4 'C high 

Positive temperature gradient 
towards Centre-stratum 

Direction of increasing upward pressure 
due to heat-induced expansion of water, 
I vapours and gases 

C C Spring 

■ j; 7 - — 

' 8° - — ^ 

Fig. 10.2. True springs and high 
altitude aprings. 

These depend on the existence of the 39°F 
(+4°C) denser water level which is called the 
centre stratum. This gets squeezed between the 
weight of water in the rocks above, and the water 
strata below. At 39°F (+4°C) it will compress 
no more, and has to move vertically or laterally, 
eventually emerging as a spring. This is why they 
are normally very cold and may appear on 
mountain tops. 

springs. The difference here is that, emerging in the high moun- 
tains, these waters are then augmented by rich glacial waters, and 
by minerals from the action of the aggressive mountain streams 
eroding the surface rocks. 

The rainwater penetrates the ground surface under the influ- 
ence of a positive temperature gradient, in a way similar to that 
of a seepage spring. But it is drawn down much more deeply, 
helped by the increasing pressure, so that it condenses and cools 
to around +4°C (39°F). Being immature water, it will absorb what 
it can, so it removes salts from the upper layers of the ground, 
depositing them later as the water condenses and cools with 
depth. This makes the upper layers more fertile, and the salts are 
now available to deep-rooted trees that have the ability to metab- 
olize them, converting them to nutrients for more shallow-rooted 

The downwards-percolating rainwater increases the pressure 
on the groundwater body, pressing the lowest layer into rocks that 


are affected by geothermal heat. These are caused to expand, 
compressing the layers above. But the +4°C (39°F) stratum water 
is already at its densest and virtually incompressible at this tem- 
perature, so all it can do is to push out laterally, providing the 
springs with their flow. This action explains how springs can 
emerge from high mountain peaks at such cold temperatures, 
where there would be insufficient local collection for a gravity 

Rain absorbs oxygen in its fall through the atmosphere. After 
it enters the ground and percolates through the soil, plant roots 
and organisms reduce its oxygen content. So when it eventually 
emerges as a true spring, the water is often oxygen-deficient, 
though rich in carbonic acid. It is dangerous to drink this water 
directly from the spring, for being hungry for oxygen, the water 
can steal it from susceptible organs, like the stomach, causing 
great discomfort. If breathed directly, the carbonic acid can dam- 
age the lungs. Known to mountain folk as 'damp-worm,' and by 
miners as 'choke-damp' respectively, both can be fatal. However, 
within ten metres of the source, the water has usually, through its 
active movement, absorbed sufficient oxygen to be quite safe to 

How springwater rises 

Viktor Schauberger designed an experiment to demonstrate how 
groundwater rises during the day and recedes at night. The equip- 
ment consists of a glass U-tube with open ends, one of which has 
contact with the air only by two very fine capillary tubes, the other 
end being open. Each arm is sealed off from the other by some 
saltwater-saturated sand at the bottom of the U-tube. High grade 
springwater with low oxygen content, and having had no contact 
with strong light, is inserted into each arm. The U-tube is placed 
in a soil-filled bucket, containing ice at the bottom to create an 
artificial environment of +4°C (39°F) temperature. 

When the bucket is put out in the Sun, a positive temperature 
gradient is set up and, because there is greater contact with the 
outside atmosphere, the water level can rise on the open end of 
the U-tube. At night, when the temperature gradient decreases, 
the water level rises on the side with the capillary tubes, falling on 
the open side, and rising on the partially blocked side. (This 



' heated water 

W*W4*4 '■■ "/////' 


experiment is illustrated on p. 202 (Fig. 15.3), the experiment 
originally being designed to show how sap rises and falls in a 

Producing energy from the ocean 

Viktor Schauberger alluded to the simplicity of emulating the 
dynamics of true springs for generating energy, although he gave no 
details. Having gained some insight into Schauberger's thinking, Cal- 
lum Coats described how this might be done, publishing the process, 
so that no commercial company would be able to patent the idea. 

Describing the formation of true springs, we spoke of the deep 
groundwater having had its oxygen content removed by needy roots 
and organisms on its journey through the soil, but having instead a 
concentration of the female fructigenic carbones. At its most dense 
at the +4°C (39°F) deep stratum, it is squeezed and can be lifted up 
to the highest mountain tops. 

The water of the ocean deeps is in a similar condition of density 
at the +4°C (39°F) deep stratum, but also under high pressure 
because of the enormous weight of water above it. A long pipe would 
be lowered from the surface of the ocean to allow this oxygen-hun- 
gry water to rise in order to drive electric generators at the surface. 

This would not be a viable system, however, without some essen- 
tial additions that Schauberger added to increase the power of the 
rising abyssal water (Fig. 10.3). The pipe would be of double-spiral 
design, with vortex-inducing vanes similar to those used in the 
Stuttgart experiment (see Chapter 14). The bottom end of the pipe 
would have a tangentially-arranged vortex inducer, as well as a 
strainer to keep out marine creatures. 

At a water level nearer to the surface, atmospheric air would 
enter through a one-way filter in order to introduce oxygen to the 
hungry abyssal water. (The filter would accept the smaller oxygen 
molecule, but exclude the larger water molecule.) On absorbing the 
oxygen, the rising water warms and rapidly expands with sufficient 
power to drive the generators, which would not be of the conven- 
tional design that destroys the water's structure, but with cen- 
tripetal impellers that improve the quality of the water. 2 

centripetal impeller, 
rotating about fixed 
slotted exhaust pipe 
and coupled to 
electric generator. 


intake cowk--<^ 

Detail of Apparatus 

fixed exhaust 

atmospheric JL 
seawater / 

seawater outfall 

direction of increasing 
physical expansive 
pressure due to 
uptake of oxygen 

oxygen supply sleeve 

point of oxygen 

one-way oxygen- 
diffusing filter 

=> insulated deep-sea 
supply pipe 

rising carbone-rich, 

Fig. 10.3 (opposite). Free energy from the 
deep ocean. 

Callum Coats' development of Viktor 
Schauberger's idea. 

Fig. 10.4 (above). Detail of apparatus in 
figure opposite. 


1 1 . Rivers and How They Row 

If we understood the importance of water both for the environment 
and for life, we would nurture and protect our rivers, which are the 
great arteries of the Earth. Healthy streams and rivers are water at 
its most active, powerful and playful. In our ignorance of how water 
needs to move, we restrict rivers with embankments and other 
unnatural constructions. We treat rivers as sewers for waste, and we 
extract the energy and spirit from their form. 

For scores of thousands of years, since people started to settle on 
the land, our forebears were aware that their prosperity depended 
on the river. Soils are quickly depleted of their nutrients by agricul- 
ture, particularly if intensive. Remineralization by regular flooding 
of the river was vital to obtaining good crops. This allowed the great 
civilizations to grow and flourish, in Mesopotamia, the valleys of the 
Nile, the Yellow River and the Indus, to name a few. 

Today's technocrats have a need to control this apparently 
chaotic behaviour of the natural river, by steering the flow, some- 
times behind high banks, and disregarding the ecosystem, to the 
great loss of fertility of the surrounding fields. Modern artificial fer- 
tilization (NPK — nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) cannot 
take the place of Nature's remineralization; in fact it often causes 
great problems through creating imbalances and pollution. 

Stages of a river 

A river has three stages of life. Its youthful stage energizes the water 
as the steep landscape puts it through vigorous tumbling, spinning 
and intense vortical movements. The immature cold water is hun- 
gry, taking up minerals as it scours the rock, cutting gullies and 
steepening the sides of the valley, more especially when it is in spate. 
It is oxygenated in rapids and waterfalls. It is put through exercises 
that it will use well when it matures. 

When the stream leaves the steep country, the flow slows, and 
some of the heavier rock matter it carried in suspension is 
deposited, to be picked up again when the flow accelerates. The 
water is now mature, having absorbed minerals and generative 


energies, and if it is prevented from excessive warming by trees on 
its banks, it recharges the groundwater of the surrounding country- 
side. The richness of movement of the young stream is carried into 
the body of the meandering river. The water is creating its own form 
which in turn regulates its flow. 

Entering the plains the river, in its natural way, would meander 
across the flat country, and when a bend twists back on itself, a 
shortcut will be created at flood time, leaving behind an oxbow 
crescent lake. It is in the plains country mostly that people try to 
manipulate the river, heavy with silt, by straight embankments to 
stop the river spreading where it wants to. These natural floods are 
not particularly destructive, and remineralize the soil which 
becomes much more productive. But technical man believes he can 
control Nature. The old river is now typically forced to perch some- 
times 50 feet above the surrounding countryside. If the river should 
burst its artificial banks at this stage, the flooding is catastrophic. 
Lacking its normal twisting movement and positive temperature 
gradient which keep the silt in suspension, it is deposited, blocking 
the channel. Its natural path thus obstructed, it becomes angry and 
unpredictable. There are now very few major rivers which are 
allowed to flow naturally. 

Temperature and the movement of water 

Viktor Schauberger made inspired studies of the natural flow in 
rivers. He found that the temperature gradient in moving water 
plays a very decisive role both in the way it moves and in the struc- 
ture of the water masses within the river. 

To regulate a waterway by means of the riverbank itself is ver- 
ily to fight cause with effect... It cannot and should not be the 
task of the river engineer to correct Nature by violating her. 
Rather, in all watercourses requiring regulation his job should 
be to study the natural harmony of the river, and to emulate 
the examples that Nature provides in the way of healthy 
streams ... Every violation, however, rebounds on the perpe- 
trator ... As water flows down a natural gradient, it does so 
according to a sublime inner law whose power our hydraulic 
experts are quite unable to comprehend ... The more the engi- 
neer, ignorant of the nature of water, tries to channel water by 


the shortest and straightest route to the sea, the more the flow 
of water weighs into the bends, the longer its path and the 
more destructive and the worse the water will become. 1 

The variations in the temperature of the water-body are so subtle, 
within a range of 0.1 °C to 2.0°C (0.04°F to 0.08°F), that contempo- 
rary hydraulic engineering practice has never felt they were signif- 
icant. Viktor Schauberger, however, considered the temperature 
variation absolutely essential for all natural water resources man- 
agement. He insisted that no artificial constraints on the river could 
ever be successful unless these variations were taken into account, 
since whether a river removes, transports or deposits its sediment 
is dependent upon the water temperature and the temperature gra- 
dient predominantly active along its course. 

Creating a positive temperature gradient 

When water descends a gradient, in the course of flow under natural 
conditions, it rhythmically first heats up and then cools down. The 
degree of heating depends on the amount of friction with the 
riverbed, the external temperature and the extent to which the water 
is directly exposed to the Sun. Only a minute change in temperature 
is required for water to pick up, transport or deposit its sediment, but 
the type of temperature gradient prevailing determines the action. A 
negative temperature gradient causes the deposition of sediment, 
and a positive temperature gradient provokes its removal. The tem- 
perature gradients alternating too suddenly can, however, cause the 
scouring or deposition of gravel to become chaotic. 

Fig. 11.1. Alternate heating and cooling 
(breathing) rhythms in river flow. 
Friction with the river bed gradually warms the 
river (negative temperature gradient) so that it 
starts to deposit its suspended sediment. When 
this reaches its maximum, an overfall occurs, 
producing a horizontal barrel vortex that cools the 
water (positive temperature gradient), until the 
river gradually warms up again. Schauberger 
likened this to the river 'breathing.' 


In Fig. 1 1 . 1 , for example, from A to B the temperature gradient 
is negative. From A to B the water gradually heats up and in the 
process is unable to retain the sediment in suspension and drops it 
progressively as the water becomes warmer. At B, the zone of maxi- 
mum deposition, the accumulated material results in an overfall 
that, in turn, creates a horizontal barrel vortex immediately down- 
stream. This vortex, however, cools the water and therefore from B 
to C the temperature gradient becomes positive. The sediment is 
once more picked up and transported. Upon reaching C, the effect 
of the positive temperature gradient gives way to its negative coun- 
terpart and the suspended matter is again dropped, reaching a max- 
imum at D. 

This pulsation or alternation is like breathing; a positive tem- 
perature gradient representing the inbreath, the absorbing, mate- 
rial-collecting movement; the negative temperature gradient 
representing the outbreath, where the energetically transformed 
matter is exhaled from the system and deposited. In order to reg- 
ulate a river naturally and successfully, it is essential to study the 
alternating sequence of the temperature gradients. A stretch of 
river with a positive gradient is less likely to flood, since only 
minor sediment deposition will occur. If the danger of flooding is 
to be reduced then a positive temperature gradient must be recre- 
ated or its duration extended. This can be done in four principal 

1. By shading and cooling the river through the replanting of 
trees, particularly at the bends, where the friction and therefore 
the warming tendencies are greatest. Tree species with a high evap- 
oration rate should be planted. Through evaporation the sap in the 
tree is cooled and circulates down to the roots under the river bed, 
cooling the water as well. This kind of tree therefore acts like a 

In order to maintain the health of the river, there should be a belt 
of trees 500 to 1000 metres wide. Rivers flowing through cleared, 
barren countryside should be reforested in order to re-establish 
healthy flow conditions, restore the nutrient supply and recharge 
the groundwater table in its vicinity (Fig. 11.2). 

2. By the construction of appropriately designed dams in which 
the temperature of the discharge can be controlled according to the 


500-1000 metre wide tree belt 

+26 3 C - 
+24 a C - 
+22=C " 


+18°C -"' 

+16°C - 

+14 C C "' 
+12°C - 

+i0°c — 


+e°c * 
+4°C - 

high transpiration, over-hanging, riparian trees 

+28°C air temperature 

4*4 VU> : 
/ ' " 

. water-cooling root-systel . 

/ river water percolation due to \ 

y f positive temperature gradient ^ 
from river to ground 



- +16' ! C 



prevailing air temperatures and the water temperatures of the flow 

Current practice with most dams and water storage facilities is 
to release either cold bedwater from the bottom sluices or warm 
surface water over the top of the dam wall, down the spillway. This 
can have disastrous consequences unless the temperature of the 
water released or its possible effect on the downstream flow regime 
is taken into account. Warm water, for example, discharged into a 
stretch of river where the temperature gradient is only slightly pos- 
itive, will effectively cancel the effect of the positive gradient, result- 
ing in the automatic and almost simultaneous deposition of silt and 
sediment. The result will be flooding. 

On the other hand if only the cold bedwater is released, it may 
overcool the lower reaches, causing excessive scouring and the 
transport of very heavy sediment loads which the lower flow 
regime may be unable to handle. This may be because of the slope 
of the bed-gradient and thereby the speed of flow, the width of the 
channel — wide, shallow channels dropping sediment more 
quickly, the temperature gradients operative lower down, etc. Each 

Fig. 11.2. Groundwater recharge through 
river bank reforestation. 

The trees act like a refrigerator, cooling the 
ground, which allows a positive temperature 
gradient to draw waterfrom the river to recharge 
the water table. 


type of discharge eventually produces the same results — silting 
up followed by flooding. Such discharges also produce what has 
recently been termed 'cold pollution,' which can destroy down- 
stream fish life and other aquatic creatures due to the sudden 
influx of far-below-normal water temperatures. 

Viktor Schauberger designed a dam with outlet sluices at differ- 
ent heights on the dam wall to correspond with the temperature 
layers of the dam water (warmer at the surface, coolest on the bot- 
tom). An automatic monitoring of air temperature would deter- 
mine which outflow would discharge the water from the dam at 
approximately the same temperature. The aim of this arrangement 
is to remove large and therefore disruptive temperature differences 
and to bring the external air temperature and the temperature of 
the river water into a closer approximation (Fig. 11. 3.). 2 

Fig. 11.3. An ingenious (but complex) 
method of freshening and 
re-energizing a river. 

By installing pre-cast concrete guide vanes that 
generate a cooling longitudinal vortex on a river 
bend, which brings the growth-enhancing 
substances (carbones) on the riverbed and near 
the banks into contact with the oxygen in the 

centre-stream; the accumulated energies from this 
synthesis release nourishing sales into the river 
banks between the bends. 


3. By installing flow-deflecting guides which direct the flow of 
water at the bends towards the centre of the river and simultane- 
ously cause the creation of cooling longitudinal vortices. Viewed 
along the direction of flow, these induce anti-clockwise rotating 
vortices at left hand bends and clockwise vortices at right hand 

The flow-guide or vortex generator (see Fig. 11.3) is made of pre- 
cast concrete, its curved surface fluted with grooves running paral- 
lel to the direction of flow, to prevent any lateral slip. It is triangular 
in shape, the apex pointing downstream. The wider, upstream end 
of the triangle is horizontal and flush with the riverbed, so as to 
scoop up the onflowing water and curl it over centripetally 
(inwardly spiralling) into a vortex in the centre of the channel. This 
movement gathers up the suspended and dissolved growth- 
enhancing substances (carbones), from near the banks and the 
riverbed, allowing them to mix with the dissolved oxygen which in 
all healthy streams collects in the central flow axis. 

These (negatively-charged) fructigenic carbones become ener- 
gized when moved centripetally and are thus able to combine with 
the fertilizing (positively charged) oxygen. The oxygen is cooled by 
a positive temperature gradient, resulting in a freshening and rein- 
vigorating of the water. At the shallower parts of the river between 
the bends, the accumulated energies from this organic synthesis 
allow the discharge of nourishing salts into the groundwater in the 
banks. 3 

4. By the implanting of 'energy-bodies' in midstream, anchored 
to the river bed, which re-energize the water by forming natural lon- 
gitudinal vortices. These would be used where the flow-guides are 
inappropriate — in the straighter stretches of a channel for 
instance — and where the removal of sediment is desirable. 
Although never described by Viktor Schauberger in detail, these 
could take the form of egg-shaped longitudinal vortex-generators 
with neutral buoyancy achieved through small holes allowing pen- 
etration of the outer water. Schauberger may have applied this prin- 
ciple from observing the stationary trout. 

Vortices may also be introduced by placing large (preferably met- 
alliferous) boulders in the centre of the channel. Schauberger found 
that the boulders that 'floated' in a very cold stream contained metal 
oxides and silicates, so these stones would actually increase the 


Fig. 1 1.4. An egg-shaped body to generate 
longitudinal vortices. 
Another way to increase vitality and electrical 
charge in streams. 

energy of the water. Water carries an electric charge. If the water is 
caused to rotate, a biomagnetic field would be created which would 
enhance the vitality of the life-enhancing elements (fructigens, dyna- 
gens and qualigens) and therefore the general health of the water. 

Schauberger once admitted making use of 'energy-bodies,' when 
he secretly installed them during the night in a sediment-choked 
stream. By morning the sediment had disappeared, the channel bed 
deepened considerably and the natural flow of water restored. The 
engineers in charge of the stream's regulation were amazed. 

The formation of vortices and bends 

We have seen that energy is always connected with movement. The 
natural movement of water is sinuous, convoluting and vortical. 
Without such movement there is no polarity. Vortices, however, can- 
not form without the existence of polarities. Through the action of 
vortices come rhythms, the pulsations that act as a gateway — a 
breathing process that the river performs for the environment. 

There are three kinds of vortices that form in a river. The prin- 
cipal one, responsible for the river's health is the longitudinal vor- 
tex (see Fig. 8.2) which is naturally generated at river bends. The 
coldest water filaments are those closest to the centre and they, 


clockwise rotation = 
positive charge 




anti-clockwise rotation 
negative charge 


being subject to the least turbulence, move fastest, pulling along the 
outer water filaments in their wake. The outer water filaments cre- 
ate the turbulence that keeps the riverbed clear of silt, becoming 
infused with trace elements and nutrients, and building up its inter- 
nal charge of pure energy that is released as the longitudinal vortex 
weakens (Schauberger called this release the 'energy cannon'). 

Then there are the transverse vortices that form at right angles to 
the bank. These are caused as a lower layer of laminar-structured 
water slips faster than the layer above it. These mix the water, but at 
the same time cool it, because the water temperatures within the 
centre of these vortices are identifiably cooler than those without, the 

Fig. 11.5. Energy release in the 

As the longitudinal vortex forms at a bend in the 
river (see Fig. 11.3), the water cools and grinds 
sediment, releasing nutrients into the river; when 
the vortex slows down after the bend, the water 
warms in the now shallower riverbed and begins 
to deposit its store of nutrients and trace elements; 
then just before a new vortex starts to form in the 
reverse direction at the next bend, energy is 
released into the environment; Viktor 
Schauberger called this the 'Energy Cannon.' If 
the river has been badly regulated, this discharge 
could be of damaging energy. 


uppermost vortex train manifesting itself as the familiar backward- 
breaking ripples seen on rivers at the surface. This type of vortex also 
distributes the lighter weight sediment and the nutrient material 
carried by the river from the centre towards the river bank. While 
they do increase turbulence, their action is more as a brake to slow 
down the flow of the river which might otherwise be too rapid. 4 

On the other hand, increasing water temperature often weakens 
the longitudinal vortices, the rising turbulence making the trans- 
verse vortices more destructive, and the banks may be breached, 
causing flooding. The third type of vortex acts vertically towards the 
river bed. They may gouge out potholes with a boulder as a grinder, 
but can be destructive by bringing radon-type energies from the 
ground into the river and projecting them into the immediate envi- 
ronment. (Fig. 11.5.). 

Fig. 1 1.6. River bend formation in plan 
and section. 

If the river is initially shaded on both banks, the 
profile of the channel at section 1-11 will be 
symmetrical. The curved line at the top of the 
diagram reflects the velocity of flow at each 
vertical, increasing from the banks, reaching a 
maximum at the centre of the channel. 

Vortices as the source of creative energy 

The longitudinal double-spiral vortex creates a cold dense flow in 
the middle of the vortex structure. This is called the core-water, or 
what Viktor termed an 'emulsion because of its particular qualities. 
It is the breeding ground for the most vitalizing energies produced 
by natural river flow. Finely ground minerals, trace elements and 

Section 1-1 1 

| , Section 2-2 1 


organic substances are spun into this belt of rapidly rotating core 
water (emulsified) that is composed to a large extent of ionized ele- 
ments. What this does is to enable new combinations and recombi- 
nations of the various elements and suspended substances. This is 
a process that Viktor called 'cold fermentation,' which is very much 
associated with longitudinal vortices. These are beneficial because 
the cooling makes the oxygen and silicates more passive and able to 
combine with carbones, which then produce a fructigenic or 
growth-promoting effect. 

Overheating of the water creates other types of vortices that are 
not so beneficial. These might be vortices forming laterally across 
the river (transverse vortices), or vertical vortices ascending to the 
surface from the river bed. In these the oxygen is heated, becoming 
aggressive, and producing low quality, germinating-inhibiting ener- 
gies or pathogen-producing bacteria. This often happens as a result 
of poorly conceived river regulation, and can propagate harmful 
energies to the countryside. 

The formation of bends 

A river will always follow a sinuous energy-generating path, because 
this is in its nature, unless mountains or other immovable objects 
prevent it. Rivers are the mirrors of an unseen flow of energy. 

The water on the right bank heats up where it has been exposed 
to the Sun's heat (see Fig. 11.6 section and profile 2-2 1 ); the water 
becomes more turbulent and begins to decelerate compared to the 
main body of water. The water flowing along the left-hand bank 
which is cooler and faster moving then overtakes the slower moving 
water and curls towards the right around it, due to the increasing tur- 
bulence and deceleration of the warmer water, eventually creating a 
bend. The faster flow will pull the heavier sediment centrifugally to 
the left, while sediment on the right is scoured out by the colder 
water. Meanwhile at this point the cross-sectional profile of the river 
becomes asymmetrical, due to the varying flows and temperatures, 
the coldest water flowing in the deeper section of the channel. 

The cold water now flows on the other side of the channel; a 
bend is formed in the opposite direction due to the momentum of 
the cold water- masses, (see section and profile 3-3 '). This rhythm 
of the river changing its course from left to right and right to left is 
an integral part of its pulsating flow. It is our interference of this 


rhythm that causes the river to become aggressive and flood. The 
banks will then not receive their recharge from the river, and all life 
downstream will also suffer. Should any kind of adjustment have to 
be made to the course of a river, it is essential to know when to 
encourage a right hand bend, for to put a left hand one there would 
only disrupt the river's energy flow. Even on a long left or right hand 
bend, there is still an alternating left-hand right-hand motion, 
although the motion in the opposite direction to that of the bend 
may be very slight and of short duration. 

This current crossover appears where the river is most shallow 
and where the slowing down of the flow allows suspended material 
to settle. So these fordable stretches become the major deposition 
zones for the river's suspended nutrients and minerals and where 
the river can transfer these to the river banks. Alternatively the 
bends are where the rocks and stones are ground down, the trace 
elements contained in them being taken up by the vortical flow for 
later nourishment. Viktor Schauberger used to say that this sedi- 
ment actually helps to sustain the river in it wanderings towards the 
ocean; he called it 'the river's bread.' These vital nutrients will be 
absorbed into the groundwater table. 

This fordable stretch is also the place where the energy nutrients 
created by the river are released into the environment, provided 
there is a positive temperature gradient in relation to the river bank. 
As noted above, Schauberger called it the 'energy cannon' (Fig. 1 1 .5). 
It is the completion of the 'outbreath' part of the cycle. All the ener- 
gies accumulated in the previous in-winding, longitudinal vortex 
have to be released before the water rotates in the opposite direc- 
tion. By this means a river constantly renews its vitality and 
enriches the land though which it flows. 

If the water is sufficiently cold, dense and dynamic, small parti- 
cles of trace elements and minerals are released from these sus- 
pended stones as they grind together, and are partially or wholly 
dissolved, replacing those previously lost through transfer to the 
surroundings. In addition pure ionizing energy is released through 
the generation of the triboluminescence. A golden flash of light is 
produced when two crystalline stones of similar composition are 
struck against one another. As it takes place under water it cannot 
be related to normal combustion, electrical discharges or frictional 
heat, and must therefore be a process of cold oxidation not associ- 
ated with the generation of heat. 


This is probably the origin of the fabled 'Gold of the Nibelungs,' 
the 'Rhinegold' that supposedly lay on the bottom of the Rhine in 
days of yore and which gleamed during the hours of darkness. This 
legend is also to be ascribed to the phenomenon of tribolumines- 
cence. About 200-250 years ago, the water of the Rhine was proba- 
bly clear enough for people to observe what appeared to be the 
flashing of gold on the riverbed. The Rhine today, however, is a 
thick, turbid, grey-green muddy brew, its life force having been 
extinguished by modern mechanistic methods of river engineering. 

Conventional river engineering 

Viktor Schauberger's most vigorous campaign was to try to per- 
suade the Bonn government to restore the Rhine and the Danube to 
their natural courses. He was greatly disturbed by the way in which 
those mighty rivers' banks had been straightened, so that the water 
was not able to flow naturally. It was like constraining someone in a 
straight] acket. This had the effect of overheating the oxygen con- 
tent, making it aggressive. The water becomes violent, prone to 
flooding and disease-promoting. Tree felling on the river banks has 
only exacerbated the problem. 

Often the rivers have been regulated through trapezoid-shaped 
canals in the misplaced belief that the flow would be improved. In 
fact this almost lifeless body of water was unable to carry its sedi- 
ment, which settled on the bottom, and the river has to be con- 
stantly dredged. Because the flow is uniform, no cooling 
longitudinal vortices can form and no energizing processes can take 

The water becomes warmer, sluggish, insipid and murky. With 
its energies destroyed it becomes a stale and lifeless liquid. Instead 
of being a carrier, mediator, accumulator and transformer of life- 
energies, the river has become a corpse (Fig. 1 1.7). 

Hydroelectric power 

Present methods of hydroelectric power generation destroy water 
in their own way. The present inappropriate design of dams we 
touched on earlier in this chapter. The water is thrust down cylin- 
drical pipes under enormous pressure. Upon leaving these it is 
then hurled against steel turbine blades where it is smashed to 



Fig. 11.7. Sand banks in conventional 

From a textbook of conventional river 
engineering. The river still tries to dance and 
play, but confined to a straightjacket, it silts up 
and will have to be dredged, to avoid flooding. 


Fig. 11.8. Viktor Schauberger's evidence 
from the microscope. 

Centrifugally killed water (left). The strongly 
crystalline structure of heavily oxygenated water 
can be detected with a microscope. If warmed it 
becomes an incubator of dangerous bacteria. 

Centrifugally vitalized water (right). 
Magnetically charged water is characterized by an 
amorphous structure. Its content of oxygen is for 
the most part bound. 

smithereens. The physical structure of the water is literally 
demolished and all the dissolved oxygen, and even some of the 
oxygen in the water molecule itself, is centrifuged out of the 

Viktor Schauberger had photographs taken through a micro- 
scope (Fig. 11.8) that show the marked difference in the structure of 
water that has been subjected to centrifugence on the one hand and 
centripetence on the other. The fragmented appearance of the cen- 
trifugally moved water is unmistakable. The slicing action of the 
blades causes severe friction and heating which makes the oxygen 
highly aggressive and it attacks the bare metal, severely pitting the 
surface, often destroying the blades' efficiency. 

This fragmented and largely oxygen-deficient water, a virtual 
skeleton of healthy water when forcibly expelled into the river, has 
disastrous consequences for the fish and other aquatic life. Inevitably 
certain species of fish disappear once these power stations are com- 
missioned, and other forms of life survive with difficulty. 

The water is so depleted that it has to build itself up again com- 
pletely before it can be of any benefit to the environment. So it 
seeks out new supplies of oxygen and other high quality sub- 
stances wherever it can find them, including living things. With 
their particularly intimate contact with this 'ravenous' water, fish 
are especially prone to attack as it enters their very delicate gill 
systems and their body's tissues are attacked by oxygen-hungry 
carbones. The soil bordering on the river is also leached of its 


Fig. 11.9. An experimental egg-shaped 
vessel for generating hydro-electric power. 
The hyperbolic cone device with spiralled nozzles 
to maximize speed of water flow. This could 
produce 90% more electricity than a hydro 

nutrients which the water hungrily consumes resulting in a large 
drop in soil fertility and productivity. 

Viktor Schauberger showed how unnecessary is this extraordi- 
narily destructive power-generating process. He devised a novel 
method in the early 1920s which can produce 90% more electric- 
ity from a given flow-volume without harm to the water. Using 
water from a nearby stream Viktor installed this device to light his 
forest warden's house, which was too remote to be connected to 
any other source of supply. The design shown in Fig. 11.9 is very 
simple, illustrating his belief that what is natural is silent, simple 
and cheap. 

It operates by water being cooled, densified and energized as it 
passes through a rifled brass nozzle, in a vortical flow, thereby 
reducing both pressure and friction as the water is centripetally 
drawn away from the sides. The water is directed against a multiple- 
spiral, shell-like impeller attached to the shaft of a generator. 5 


12. Supplying Water 

Dwindling water supplies 

The subject of water is very topical, mainly because usable water is 
in short supply. Predictions are now common that wars will be 
fought over access to water. It is easy to see why. Countries that con- 
trol the headwaters of important rivers can restrict their flow down- 
stream, like Turkey with Iraq, Israel with Jordan, Syria with Israel, 
Sudan with Egypt, India with Bangladesh. Twenty per cent of the 
world's population does not have clean drinking water; nearly half 
the world does not have sanitation. One hundred cities in northern 
China now ration water, and Beijing's future as China's capital has 
been under review because its growth has outstripped its water 
resources. Even those countries which have sufficient water treat it 
so badly that, when delivering it to homes, kill it with chlorine, flu- 
orides and other chemicals, ostensibly to prevent disease; instead 
this depresses our immune systems and makes us more open to 

How has this come about? Water is in great abundance on this 
marvellous planet, but less than 0.5% is available as fresh water. The 
rest is salt water, inaccessible groundwater, or frozen in polar moun- 
tain ice. While the world's population is increasing by 85 million a 
year, cities are expanding at double that rate due to urbanization. 
Cities and industries consume the most water (industrial water 
consumption is to double by 2025). 1 Twenty-four countries, mainly 
in Africa, will not have enough water to meet 2025 projected needs. 2 
And, if that is not critical, according to a recent UN report, world 
population could rise from 6.1 billion in 2000 to at least 8.2 billion 
by 2050. 3 Today, 1.2 billion people drink unclean water, and 2.5 bil- 
lion lack proper toilets or sewerage systems. 4 And what will be the 
situation in ten years' time? 

Globally, about 70% of water diverted from rivers or drawn from 
aquifers is used for irrigation. This is hugely wasteful; leaking pipes 
and channels, evaporation from reservoirs and from irrigation sprays 
means that about 60% of the water does not reach the plants' roots. 
China's greatest river, the Yellow River, has run dry and in several 


years since 1985 has failed to reach the ocean. 5 The once mighty Nile, 
Ganges and Colorado Rivers barely reach the sea in dry seasons. 6 The 
introduction of industrial agriculture into India and Northern China 
has in those areas led to dangerous lowering of the water table. 

The construction of large dams, whether for hydroelectric power 
or for irrigation does incalculable environmental damage, as well as 
annihilating viable human communities. Dams destroy ecosystems 
and sever the balancing of energy from one part of the landscape to 
another. Since 1970, when Egypt's Aswan High Dam came into oper- 
ation, the number of commercially harvested fish species in the Nile 
dropped by two-thirds, and the Mediterranean sardine catch has 
fallen by 80%. 7 

Water for profit 

Traditional societies know how to manage their water, but increas- 
ingly the supplies of rural communities are being privatized by 
companies whose major priority is profit. In April 2000 the protest- 
ing citizens of Cochabamba in Bolivia suffered over 180 casualties 
at the hands of their police before their government revoked the 
right of International Waters of London to impose a 35% increase 
in water prices. The Bolivian government has now reconsidered its 
policy to privatize all public water supplies. 

Vast new networks of supply and disposal pipes must be built in 
the cities if basic water needs are to be met. Governments, unwill- 
ing these days to invest in social infrastructure, are privatizing 
water utilities, and the results seldom benefit the consumer. A short- 
age in any essential commodity brings out the profiteers and extor- 
tionists. Pro-privatization propaganda reached a climax at the 
Water Forum meetings in The Hague in March 2000, but the abuses 
and inadequacies of commercial control have become apparent. 

One study has shown that Swedish municipal water authorities 
delivered water at around a third of the cost, had operating costs of 
about half, and produced nearly three times higher return on capi- 
tal than English private water companies of similar size. 8 However, 
since the economic downturn of 2001, several English private water 
companies have been experiencing financial difficulties. It makes 
complete nonsense that essential water supplies should be subject 
to the ups and down of the financial markets. 

A great danger to our water comes from the globalization of sup- 


ply. Multinational companies are unaccountable and self-serving with 
more interest in profits than in a sustainable environment. A group of 
water companies tried at the 2001 Water Forum conference to foist a 
new water order on the world, in effect to encourage water supply to be 
removed from public control. American companies are negotiating to 
build dams in India which would displace countless communities and 
destroy their environments. Three French companies already control 
more than 70% of the world's private market. 9 Increasing numbers of 
privatized water schemes are linked to ventures to extract more water 
through vast dams and reservoirs, with bulk water supply schemes 
that guarantee profits by requiring consumption regardless of need. 

Modern water treatments 


Because public water is not treated with the care required to keep 
water pulsating and alive, it degenerates, attracting pathogenic 
organisms. As a result, the authorities routinely treat it with chlorine 
to prevent the threat to the community of waterborne diseases. This 
powerful disinfectant removes all types of bacteria, beneficial and 
harmful alike, and in doing so, over a long period of time, destroys 
or seriously weakens many of the immune-enhancing micro- 
organisms in the body. It is a major contributor of lowered immune 
resistance in older people. Medical authorities say that the amount 
of chlorine is so small that it could not do this, but they fail to take 
into account that the chlorine accumulates in the fatty tissue of the 
body, so that the dosage is cumulative, nor that there is a homeo- 
pathic action that amplifies the effect on the body. 

Those of us who live in cities and are forced year-in and year- 
out to drink sterilized water should seriously consider the fate 
of that 'organism' whose naturally-ordained ability to create life 
has been forcibly removed by chemical compounds. Sterilized 
and physically-destroyed water not only brings about physical 
decay, but also gives rise to mental deterioration and hence to 
the systematic degeneration of humanity and other life-forms. 10 


The issue of adding fluorosilicates (fluoride) routinely to drinking 
water is one of the worst outrages in public health policy. This is not 


the naturally occurring calcium fluoride that is present in some 
drinking water, usually at low levels of about 0. lppm (parts per mil- 
lion). It is a by-product of a number of industrial processes, initially 
the iron, copper, aluminium and now the phosphate fertilizer indus- 
tries, and contains also a number of heavy metals; altogether a 
potent toxic cocktail, the disposal of which would be costly by cur- 
rent environmental standards. 11 

The solution to this problem of industrial waste disposal was to 
arrange for their addition to public water supplies. In parts of the 
USA, Canada, Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and a few 
non-English speaking countries, like Chile, this is permitted, usu- 
ally at levels of about lppm (or lmg fluoride per litre of water), but 
many other countries decided the risks were too high to implement 
the policy. The addition of fluoride as a policy is justified by the 
claim that it reduces dental cavities, especially in children. Indepen- 
dent research actually proves otherwise, and shows that the body 
accumulates levels of fluoride in the bones and certain organs, and 
there is evidence of increased risk of cancer, brain function impair- 
ment, kidney malfunction and premature ageing. 12 At higher 
dosages, fluorosilicates are an effective rat poison. 

Unfortunately fluoride is also added to many processed foods, 
fruit juice, milk and, especially toothpaste. Fluoride is released into 
food cooked in Teflon-coated cookware, so the actual intake may be 
significant, even if you don't live in a fluoridated area. For reasons 
that are difficult to comprehend, but which are clearly political in 
nature, many dental and health authorities seem to support this 
mass medication of whole populations, and politicians seem happy 
to go along with it. 

Mass fluoridation started in the USA in 1945, backed largely by 
the Mellon family, owners of ALCOA, the biggest aluminium manu- 
facturer, and one of the biggest fluoride wartime polluters. Starting 
with Grand Rapids, Michigan it was introduced within two years to 
a hundred cities. Basically a dirty tricks campaign that labelled 
opposers as crackpots (and during the McCarthy era as left-wing 
subversives), it has never completed convincing tests, nor produced 
adequate evidence of its efficacy or safety. 'It was a political, not a 
scientific health issue' and, like the agenda of the more recent genet- 
ically modified foods campaign, became a major US export. 13 

The World Health Organization and the American Medical Asso- 
ciation were persuaded to back the policy. The FDA (US Food and 


Drug Administration) has backed off slightly from its 100% 
endorsement of the product, due to public exposure of the scam, but 
today 130 million Americans in 9,600 communities continue to 
drink fluoridated water. 14 Like the USA, about 50% of the Canadian 
population has fluoridated water. 

Mass fluoridation came to Britain in the 1950s, and currently 
10% of the population is exposed, mostly in the West Midlands and 
the North-East. The present UK government policy is to require all 
water companies to adopt fluoridation. In Australia, some of the flu- 
oride laws are so Draconian that people may be prosecuted for 
speaking out against water fluoridation. 15 

Barry Groves concludes, 'Fluoridation is the longest, most 
expensive and most spectacularly unsuccessful marketing cam- 
paign ever to come out of the United States.' 16 

Viktor Schauberger was very concerned about industrial pollu- 
tion of rivers and lakes, but the addition of poisons to our domestic 
water supply was not an issue of the 1930s. Indeed, he insisted that 
the way we transport and deliver water destroys the invigorating 
qualities of healthy water, and he pursued enlightened research on 
ways of maintaining water's energy. Viktor predicted that one day a 
bottle of good water would be more expensive than a bottle of wine, 
and commented on our treatment of public water supplies: 

If we have any common sense remaining, we should refuse to 
continue to drink water prepared in this way. The alternative 
would be degeneration into cancer-prone, mentally and phys- 
ically decrepit, physically and morally inferior individuals. 17 

Transmuting water's memory 

Most communities make genuine efforts to remove physical pollu- 
tants from public water supplies, but there are so many organic tox- 
ins produced by industrial agriculture, that one is wise to consider 
good filtration to reduce the dangers of these pollutants and of 
heavy metals that, sadly, are now more common. There are now gen- 
erally available good and affordable plumbed-in filters that remove 
most of the physical contaminants. 18 However, what our water treat- 
ment policies must urgently take on board is that the physical 
removal of a pollutant is only part of making water safe. 


Typically, in modern cities, public water supplies are recycled as 
many as twenty times. Even if the physical contaminants have been 
removed, their vibrational imprint is still carried in the water in its 
memory bank, no matter how many times it is recycled. Just as 
water can carry restorative energies, such as in homeopathy, so it 
can transmit negative or destructive imprints that can cause dishar- 
mony or disease in the body. 

The purpose of some of the better vortex treatment systems is 
to recluster the water, in a manner that superimposed natural 
vibrations will erase the memory of the water's previous abuse. The 
vortex, being the transmuting instrument or enabling gateway 
between different qualities or levels of energy, allows the water to 
absorb the etheric or cosmic level of energy that surrounds us all. 19 
Rather as allowing brilliant sunlight and fresh air to fill a musty 
room will quickly transmute the stale energy, so the more refined 
energy always prevails over the coarser. We would recommend a 
combination of an efficient plumbed-in filter with a vortex-type 
re-energizing system (see Resources, p. 276). 

Tubular water movement 

We described earlier Viktor Schauberger's almost mystical experi- 
ence of when he felt his own consciousness enter the stream and how 
the water consciousness seemed to tell him how it wanted to move. 
Great pioneers of science have told of similar experiences as a kind 
of initiation. For Viktor it opened a wider perception about water's 
behaviour in quite different situations. For example, how water 
wants to move in a closed system like a pipe is quite different from 
its movement in a river. His genius allowed him to make the quite 
remarkable connection between the behaviour of water in a pipe or 
tube, and the movement of sap in a tree or blood in the human body. 

Water main material 

Archeological research has shown that in ancient times, from the 
Babylonians to the Greeks, there was a greater understanding of 
water and its qualities. In those times, water mains were constructed 
of high quality wood or of natural stone. In time, these natural mate- 
rials became more scarce, and the Romans experimented with differ- 
ent metals. Preoccupied with oxidizing corrosion, unfortunately they 


often used lead which brought its own problems of lead poisoning, 
particularly in the wine goblets where the vinegar in the wine dis- 
solved the lead. 

Before the expansion of cities during the Industrial Revolution, 
many water mains in Europe, and even in New York, were con- 
structed of wood, which allowed the water to breathe and to inter- 
act with its environment. After the water mains in Vienna were 
extended to new suburbs with steel or iron pipes, internally coated 
with tar, as opposed to the traditional wooden tubes, Schauberger 
found that the incidence of cancer more than doubled between 1920 
and 1931. 20 

The laminar structure of water quickly disintegrates owing to 
the chaotic flow through a cylindrical pipe. Friction with the pipe 
walls heats up the water, decomposing the dissolved trace elements. 
As the surface of the iron pipes start to rust, oxygen is taken out of 
the water, and the rust deposits encourage disease -promoting bac- 
teria. The accumulating rust in turn constricts the water flow, so 
that what is delivered is dead water, disinfected with chlorine. 

The wooden water main 

Schauberger knew that water can maintain its vitality and energy 
only if it is allowed to tumble about in a spiralling vortical manner. 
So in 1930 he set about designing a pipe that would actually encour- 
age this movement. It was constructed of wooden staves, like a bar- 
rel, which allowed the moisture to seep through, transferring a 
cooling effect (as in sweating) to the water in the pipe. The spiralling 
movement was created by a series of guide vanes, which act like 
rifling in a gun barrel. These were made of silver plated copper to 

Fig. 12.1. The double-spiral longitudinal 

This is a longitudinal vortex showing the 
development of toroidal counter-vortices. These 
occur due to interaction with the porous pipe 
walls and have an effect similar to ball-bearings, 
enhancing the forward movement. Their interior 
rotation follows the direction of rotation and flow 
of the central vortex. These toroidal vortices 
transfer oxygen, bacteria and other impurities to 
the pipe walls, where the concentration of oxygen 
destroys the inferior, pathogenic bacteria. 


12.2. Flow dynamics of the double enhance the subtle energies and fluted so as to direct movement 
spiral pipe (cross section). towards the centre, thus reducing the heating effects of friction. 

Figs. 12.1 and 12.2 illustrate how this configuration sets up a 
double-spiral longitudinal vortex, creating a waterflow faster than 
a conventional cylindrical pipe. The centripetal flow of the main 
water body helps to cool and accelerate it, this heavier water draw- 
ing the specifically lighter outer water along in its wake. The cen- 
tripetal spiralling of the toroidal 'doughnuts' created by the guide 
vanes extract oxygen from the main water body, transferring any 
pathogenic bacteria to the pipe walls where they are eliminated by 
the aggressive oxygen. The higher quality micro-organisms how- 
ever, survive, because they require higher levels of oxygen. 


It is a brilliant design that imitates the natural pulsating flow 
of water in a natural vessel and which delivers water that purifies 
itself and cools through its motion, eliminating the need for any 
sterilizing or purifying additives. Ideally, these wooden water 
mains should be embedded in sand, allowed them to breathe, and 
protected from light and heat. In such conditions they should out- 
last a steel pipe. 

The Stuttgart tests 

As the scientific establishment had never taken seriously his ideas 
on natural water movement, Viktor Schauberger in later life decided 
to have them subjected to rigorous tests by an independent author- 
ity. In 1952 he asked the Stuttgart Technical University to set up the 
experiments at his own expense. He approached Professor Franz 
Popel, director of the Institute of Hygiene who, knowing 
Schauberger's infamous reputation, at first refused, saying it would 
be a waste of his time. 

The German Government had been irritated by Viktor's railing 
about its management of the River Rhine. So, hearing about 
Schauberger's proposal, it was happy to offer to cover half the costs, 
thinking that any genuine tests were bound to discredit him. As a 
result of this, Professor Popel changed his mind and agreed to test 
the various rifled and helical pipes that Viktor supplied. 

The object of the tests was to compare how water moves through 
eight different kinds of pipe, the velocity of the water flow being 
affected by friction varying according to the form of the pipe. The 
configurations that produced the most friction were the straight 
pipes made of glass or of copper. Introducing a sinuosity to the pipe 
reduced the friction, while Viktor's special 'spiral helicoid' copper 
pipe directed the water flow in an involuting flow movement away 
from the walls, giving the greatest reduction in friction, to zero or 
perhaps even below (negative friction or acceleration) at specific 
velocities. 22 

Because of expectations of his peers, Popel's report played down 
the significance of the experiment, which in fact in these circum- 
stances disproved the relevance of the Second Law of Thermody- 
namics, which states that energy in any closed systems must 
degenerate or run down. The implication of this was that a system 
can in certain circumstances generate energy spontaneously, that 


once the initial impetus has been received, no further energy input 
is required. In other words, energy is not a constant. In this case it 
was increased through the emergence of fifth or sixth dimensional 
dynagens (see Chapter 2) created by what Schauberger called 'orig- 
inal' or 'cosmic' movement. Popel did, however, admit that in 
Schauberger's special pipe, friction at two specific velocities 
appeared to reduce to zero. 

The circulation of blood 

It is a common experience for those who use the ancient practice 
of watching the breath when they meditate, of the strange sensa- 
tion of 'being breathed;' that the process seems to be part of a 
'greater breathing.' Viktor Schauberger would often insist in a sim- 
ilar vein, that a bird 'is flown and a fish 'is swum.' On many occa- 
sions he said that the heart is not a pump, that it 'is pumped.' He 
saw the heart, rather, as a regulator or of blood flow. The spurts of 
blood that the heart produces during contraction are more like the 
automatic reaction to having been full, like the outbreath of the 

The Stuttgart experiment had established that when the water 
flow was in resonance with the configuration of the pipe, there was 
no friction. Similarly the blood being in resonance with the arter- 
ies and capillaries greatly facilitates flow. In addition the blood 
vessels have a natural pulsating, peristaltic action. About 1927, 
Professor Kurt Bergel of Berlin University recorded this automatic 
pulsation a few days after incubation in small warm blood vessels 
around the egg sac of a bird's egg, although no heart had yet been 
formed. Professor Bergel also rejected the popular theory of the 
heart as a pump, insisting that this function was carried out by 'the 
millions of highly active capillaries permeating the body,' and that 
'health and disease are primarily dependent on the faultless or 
disturbed activity of the capillaries.' 23 

It appears that the pulsation of the capillaries initiate the circu- 
lation of the blood, augmented by the configuration of the blood 
vessels themselves. 24 The specifications for these would have been 
created with the original energy blueprint for hot-blooded creatures 
in general, and the human being in particular (see Chapter 2). 
Included in these specifications was even a provision that the vis- 
cosity of the blood would be reduced in the finer blood vessels, so 


that its ability to flow freely would not be compromised! The same 
is found with sap at the tree's extremities. 

A parallel may also be drawn between the veins and arteries 
twisting sinuously through the body, bringing nutrients to the tis- 
sues and organs and the streams and rivers, pulsating with eddies 
and spirals, winding their way through the countryside, nourishing 
the surrounding areas. 

Temperature gradients also can influence the efficient circula- 
tion of blood. A strong positive gradient (where temperature 
decreases with movement in a given direction) between the inner 
core of the body and its outer extremities will stimulate the outward 
flow. This explains the invigoration of a cold shower. Conversely, a 
prolonged soak in a hot bath slows down the circulation, producing 
lethargy. The second is the result of the difference in the physico- 
chemical composition and therefore the energetic characteristics of 
arterial and venal blood. 

Pulsation is assisted by the different electromagnetic charges 
carried by two principal types of blood. The positively-charged 
oxygen in the outward flowing arterial blood is gradually 
absorbed by muscles and skin, creating a partial vacuum. The 
negatively-charged, carbone-rich venal blood on the other hand 
returning from the extremities is ready to reabsorb oxygen from 
the lungs. The contraction of the heart muscle is a balancing 
response to opposite charges carried by the two types of blood in 
the relatively large heart chambers. It might also be said that the 
heart's pulsation is caused by our breathing in positively charged 
oxygen, (we then expel the negatively charged C0 2 and water), 
rather than the conventional belief that we breathe because the 
heart 'pumps.' The heart's real function is to stimulate pulsation 
in the blood flow. 

The situation of the unborn child is different, for there is no tem- 
perature difference between the inner core and the outer extremi- 
ties. It is likely therefore in the case of the foetus that the heart acts 
like a pump until it is born. After birth the heart would then assume 
its normal role as pulsator and balancer. 

Callum Coats quotes research that calculates the total length of 
blood vessels in the average human adult to be about 96,500 km 
(60,000 miles)! On the basis of conventional hydraulic calculation 
it is inconceivable that the actual power output of the heart, about 
1.5 watts, would be sufficient for this huge task. 25 Yet it does so. 


Moreover, Walter Schauberger calculated that the annual output of 
the heart would suffice to raise a weight of about 40 tonnes (44 
tons) to a height of lm (3.28ft). 

The Stuttgart experiments showed that a specific configura- 
tion is required for frictionless flow to occur. Schauberger main- 
tained that energy creates the vessel most conducive to its desired 
form of movement in a given situation; and that energy will 
always try to move frictionlessly in healthy, animate, organic sys- 
tems. Seen in this light, the pulsating, almost frictionless flow of 
blood over these enormous distances becomes more comprehen- 
sible. It is important that further investigations should be pur- 
sued into the lines of research that Viktor Schauberger pioneered. 

Water storage 

With good water becoming increasingly more scarce, it is important 
to understand how to preserve its quality. Water's enemy is excess 
heat and light. Water contains oxygen, a substance that is essential 
for the processes of growth and decay. Below a temperature of 9°C 
(48 °F), oxygen is used for growth, above that, to promote decompo- 
sition. As the temperature rises above 10°C (50°F), the oxygen 
becomes increasingly more aggressive, promoting pathogenic bac- 
teria which can give us disease when we drink the water containing 

A tank or cistern that is above ground needs to be well insu- 
lated, and painted white to reflect the Sun's heat. If it is mostly 
below ground, the walls will not require insulation, but the top 
must be painted white. However, Viktor Schauberger urged us to 
observe the shapes that Nature uses to propagate and maintain 
life. Nature abhors squares (cubes), rectangles (water tanks) and 
circles (cylinders). He said that we should not be surprised that 
our dependence on these unnatural shapes for storage results in 
the deterioration of our water. This is probably impractical for 
larger containers, but we should try a more natural shape for 
smaller containers. 

Because it is a living organism, water needs to be in constant 
movement to maintain its health. The only container that allows this 
is the egg-shape. The material of containment is very important, 
because water needs to keep cool; the best materials are natural 
stone, wood or terracotta. The ancient Greeks understood this, and 


kept their water (and wine) in amphorae, egg-shaped vessels that 
allowed the liquid to breathe. In many amphorae discovered in 
archaeological digs, grains have been found to be preserved so well 
after 2000 years that they germinated when planted, proving the 
effectiveness of the egg-shape for preservation. 



The Life of Trees 

13. The Role of the Forest 

When someone dies the bell tolls. When the forest dies and with it a 
whole people, then no-one lifts a finger. Viktor Schauberger 1 

Only people who love it should care for the forest. Those who view the 
forest merely as an object of speculation do it and all other living 
creatures great harm, for the forest is the cradle of water. If the forest 
dies, then the springs will dry up, the meadows will become barren 
and many countries will inevitably be seized by unrest of such a kind 
that it will bode ill for every one of us. Viktor Schauberger 2 

Viktor Schauberger, who believed that the highest quality water 
depends on the forest, predicted that deforestation would bring 
water shortage and climate change. As equatorial deforestation has 
greatly accelerated since he died, it might be useful to summarize 
the effects of this devastation. 

Evolution of the forest 

Plants have been around for 420 million years, which is only 9% of 
Earth's history. Without plants there could be no life, for plants are 
the essential link for converting the Suns energy into food. Trees are 
the highest form of the plant, and the most efficient exchangers of 
energy between the Earth and the Sun. The forests are the main 
source of oxygen, an essential building block of life; they are the 
Earth's 'lungs.' There have been three periods when forests have 
flourished: in the Carboniferous Age 350 million years ago, when 
land vertebrates became established; in the Eocene, 60 million years 
ago, when primitive mammals first appeared, and in the last 
500,000 years, when the cultures of modern man developed. It 
seems that in each case a boost in the oxygen content of the atmos- 
phere, which the forests delivered, may have been the trigger for 
evolutionary explosion of Earth's life forms. 

These extensive forests developed in the equatorial regions 
where the heat was available to prime a remarkable engine for mod- 
erating the extremes of temperature and the often chaotic nature of 


the world's historical climate. In the first case they were evergreen 
forests, interspersed with enormous swamps. In the Eocene when 
the modern great mountain ranges were being uplifted, there were 
large tropical jungles, perhaps not too different from the modern 
ones which flourished on all the continents until the late nineteenth 
century, but with less complex fauna. 

It is interesting to speculate what caused the forests to establish 
themselves at these periods. Viktor Schauberger recognized Nature 
as an intelligent system endowed with meaning and purpose that is 
concerned with evolving more complex life-forms and a higher level 
of consciousness. From that perspective it is possible that the estab- 
lishment of forest might be seen as part of that purpose. 

Forest cover varies with climate. Forests have been the natural 
cover of perhaps three quarters of the Earth's land surface during 
these periods of evolutionary expansion. This natural forest was an 
essential prerequisite for the development of the extraordinarily 
rich variety of fauna and flora (now called 'biodiversity') that makes 
this planet an important source of life in the Universe. 

Destruction of the forests 

Either fortuitously or by design, there seems to be a large degree of 
tolerance in Earth's ecosystems for the amount of forest cover 
required to support a balanced climate — though what a great 
reduction of forest does to biodiversity and the quality of life is 
another question. Over the half a million or so years of humankind's 
time on Earth, our species has been responsible for reduction of the 
forest cover to about 25% of its optimum extent. The early agricul- 
turists would burn clearings to grow their crops, and then move on 
to allow the fertility to be replenished. Early civilizations, some well 
documented and some which are now folk memories, felled vast 
tracts of forest. 

Many of these lands became desertified, such as the Gobi, Sind, 
Arabian, Mesopotamian, North African and Kalahari deserts — 
probably through a combination of deforestation and climate 
change. Whole nations were uprooted and had to move elsewhere in 
their search for subsistence. The same is likely to happen today 
where great swathes of the rich equatorial forests have been cleared. 
Fortunately in those days there was somewhere else for the dis- 
placed to go, because the world's population was still relatively 


small. Today, however, because of overpopulation and an unsustain- 
able birth rate, any climate changes that produce crop failures can 
mean only starvation and the loss of life through conflict. In tem- 
perate climates, clear felling of forests does not normally lead to 
desertification, but it affects the biodiversity, the fertility and there- 
fore the long-term health of the environment. 

Ten thousand years ago the whole Mediterranean region was 
covered with forests, mainly of oak. Then about 5,000 years ago the 
forests of Lebanon provided the timber for the Phoenician empire. 
We don't know what happened to the forests of North Africa, but two 
thousand years ago these lands were so fertile that the Romans 
called them the breadbasket of the Mediterranean. They are now 
arid desert. A thousand years ago 80% of Europe was forested; today 
it is about 20%, much of which is monocultured industrial wood- 
land, which lacks the biodiversity and the energy of natural forest. 
In North America, the forest extended from the Atlantic to beyond 
the Mississippi, and of course west of the Rockies. 

Sometimes the forests were exploited to provide fast economic 
expansion, regardless of the cost to future generations. In order to 
provide a navy capable of ruling the seas, in the early sixteenth cen- 
tury Henry VIII ordered the felling of a million mature oak trees, 
virtually denuding England of its mature oaks. The world's forest 
cover was reduced from about 75% at its greatest to about 50% in 
medieval times. By 1900 it had dropped to about 35%. In the fran- 
tic rush to get rich quick, regardless of the consequences, the figure 
has dropped to 25% and every year we are still losing equatorial for- 
est the size of Belgium. 

Today, the unstable social conditions worldwide, and irresponsi- 
ble political leadership favour greedy opportunists anxious to make 
their fortunes, often illegally, by logging many of the finest stands of 
prime forests on every continent. This destruction is likely to be 
seen in the future as dangerous planetary vandalism, because their 
consequences will bear heavily on the future global environmental 

A moral tale 

Easter Island, one of the most remote islands in the Pacific Ocean, 
was occupied by a people about whom we know little, but who had 
the most remarkable artistic skills (witness the giant statues they 


left behind), and a sophisticated culture. It had a cover of forest, fer- 
tile soil, and at one time supported over 20,000 people. Towards the 
end of the thousand years of their occupation of the island, their 
society clearly deteriorated and they had felled all the trees, so that 
by AD500, there was no way to build a boat and leave the island. The 
people literally died out. 

Of all the violations we have committed against the beautiful 
and fertile planet we call home, the destruction of the forests is the 
hardest to comprehend. The effects of such actions are so quickly 
apparent, in terms of soil depletion, or in extreme cases, of erosion 
of the living soil layer by rain or wind, and indeed, through climate 
change. The great floods of the Rhine in recent years, and the dev- 
astating floods in Bangladesh and the mud slides in Assam and 
Honduras have been caused demonstrably by deforestation in the 
mountains. In spite of this, the tree felling continues. When the 
European immigrants settled in North America, there was continu- 
ous forest from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. 

Five thousand years earlier the great Midwestern prairies and 
the grasslands of Argentina were also forested. The deep soils of the 
temperate latitudes were created over hundreds of thousands of 
years by rich natural forest. (Grasslands do not produce deep soils.) 
And within a hundred years we have ruined these, first by intensive 
cultivation, and then by chemical poisoning. The American prairies, 
and the East Anglian wheat fields have lost on average half their soil 
depth. When in 1999, over 30,000 people died in mudslides in 
Venezuela, scientists blamed the weather! The obvious lessons are 
not being learned, which suggests that our 'experts' are completely 
out of touch with reality, a complaint frequently voiced by Viktor 

We are told that the critical point may soon be reached when 
there will not be enough forest to produce sufficient oxygen to sup- 
port high quality life. For the forests are the lungs of the Earth, 
breathing in carbon dioxide (CO2) and exhaling oxygen (O). When 
the trees are felled, and again when they are burned, they contribute 
to the mass of carbon dioxide, the principal global warming gas. 
Recent analyses of fossilized amber have shown that their air bub- 
bles contained 38% oxygen. Today the average oxygen content of air 
is 19%, which suggests that the human body was designed to oper- 
ate at twice today's concentration of oxygen. In some larger cities 
the oxygen content has deteriorated to as low as 12%. 


Crucially, though still little understood, forests create the envi- 
ronment for the propagation of water, the 'first-born' of the energies 
of life, as Schauberger puts it, and they moderate the climate, mak- 
ing it cooler in summer and warmer in winter. They are also respon- 
sible for the mineralization and fertilization of the surface soils, 
essential for the nutrition of higher life forms and, most important 
of all, the forests create the rich humus and bacterial life, the foun- 
dation of a rich biodiversity, which stores and recycles vast amounts 
of rainfall, preventing floods on lower land. 3 

Tropical rainforests 

Everyone who has the opportunity, before it is too late, should visit 
a tropical rainforest, for they are the priceless jewels of our ecosys- 
tem. Important not just for the incredible richness and variety of 
their fauna and flora, they have had a substantially modifying influ- 
ence on the world's climate, helping to make most of the Earth 
pleasantly habitable and very productive. They were on four conti- 
nents, but are now only about half their extent of 500 years ago: the 
South American is the most complete, at about 75% of its original 
size; the South-east Asian, from India, through Indo-China to 
Indonesia and Australia is about a third of what it was, and the 
African about 40% of its original size. The Central American has 
virtually disappeared. 

More than twice as much of the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's 
surface at the tropics as in high latitudes where the Sun's angle 
above the horizon is very low. The tropical rainforests of the world 
act as heat pumps, transferring to higher latitudes some of the enor- 
mous energy they generate, thus evening out the temperature dif- 
ference. Without them, the equatorial regions would be much hotter, 
and the higher latitudes much colder. The larger the mass of a trop- 
ical rainforest, the more effective it is as a heat pump. 

Now that we know, from a study of the Amazonian rainforest, 
how the heat pump works, it is possible to conjecture that the 
African continent would not have been nearly as dry as it is today. 
In South-East Asia the destruction has reached cataclysmic propor- 
tions, with a free-for-all between corrupt local interests and greedy 
multinational companies who are also extracting minerals at a fast 
pace, particularly in Borneo, where most of the virgin forests, theo- 
retically protected, are likely to disappear within fifteen years. 


Fig. 13.1. The Amazon heat engine and the North Atlantic. 

The Amazon Basin is the big heat engine that controls the climate of the Northern Hemisphere, but only when the tropical rainforest is largely 
complete. See Note 13.3 (p. 274) for how the Gulf Stream pump works, and the danger of its failure due to fresh water run-off from the 
Greenland icecap. Note 13.7 explains how the Amazonian heat engine works. 

Within the last decade both droughts and storms have, for example 
in Australia, become consistently more severe. With the accelerated 
destruction of the forest, the climatic future of the region looks 
grim. Amazonia contains two-thirds of the world's surviving tropi- 
cal rainforest, representing about 30% of all the biological material 
on the land. 4 You can imagine that when all four tropical rain forests 
were intact, they must have contained the greater part of the plant 
and animal life on Earth. 

The released energy drives the great air masses across the 
Amazon basin to the Andes, recycling the rain and evapo-tran- 
spiration several times in a leapfrogging process (see Fig. 13.1). 
The airflow then splits into three: the southern part is deflected 
as far as Patagonia; the central part flows over the Andes into the 
Pacific, continuing west as the trade winds; the northern airflow 
crosses the Caribbean, and helps to drive the Gulf Stream north- 
eastwards to Europe. 6 Rainforests act as thermal engines, rainfall 
stimulators and as regulators of atmospheric and oceanic sys- 
tems. They moderate the climate of the whole Earth and help to 
make it habitable. 

The Amazon Basin, which comprises 7 million km 2 of rainfor- 
est, is the biggest and most efficient energy transformer on Earth 7 ; 
it is self-maintaining when complete, but 25% has already been 
lost in the last 35 years. Five million km 2 lie in Brazil which has 
recently unveiled an accelerated development plan (see below) 
that would result in the loss of a further 20% by 2020 (a total loss 
of forest of 45%!). There is a critical size of the Amazonian rain- 
forest below which this complex heat engine and rainfall distrib- 
utor will fail. Some authorities claim that if it shrinks to much less 
than the present 75% of its original area, the forest will not be able 
to perform these critical functions effectively, resulting in more 
hostile weather patterns and drought across the globe. 8 

Areas that have been clear-felled put at risk the remaining forest 
for many miles from the edge of the deforested area, rendering the 
marginal area more susceptible to die-back due to the local increase 
in temperature. In fact, the Amazonian forest through deforestation 
is generally losing its ability to withstand the worldwide tempera- 
ture increase created by global warming. At some point, perhaps in 
the next twenty years (or sooner under present Brazilian plan), a 
critical point could be reached, when massive die-back could cause 
this vital energy transformer to fail. 


Preservation of this precious forest is a tough battle. In June 
2000, the biggest landowners in Brazil who control 50% of the agri- 
cultural land, pushed a draft law through the Brazilian senate com- 
mittee which would have allowed a 25% increase in annual rates of 
clearing and burning of the forest. An international email campaign 
amongst environmentalists, instantly mounted, generated hun- 
dreds of thousands of signatures, forcing the Congress to back 
down. Less than a year later however, the Brazilian government 
launched the much more ambitious Avanca Brasil plan to develop 
most of Amazonia, with new highways, even railroads; new settle- 
ments and extraction of minerals and timber. The whole region will 
be transformed in the next twenty years, with the remains of the 
forest chopped into strips and blocks with little chance of survival. 
This unbelievably irresponsible policy can be stopped only by mass 
international protest. 


The death of the forests is only the tip of the iceberg and is a reflection 
of the deeper deterioration in humankind itself 
Ernst Krebs 

If a forest's climate changes over hundreds or thousands of years, 
the types of trees that grow in it will gradually change, without 
threatening the survival of the forest. However, if the rate of climate 
change accelerates, as it is doing today, certain species disappear 
before new species can take hold. The forest starts to lose its vital- 
ity and will gradually deteriorate into an arid wasteland. 

The modern science of forestry began in the early nineteenth cen- 
tury. Napoleon in his passage over the Alps removed an unbelievable 
number of great trees, and the Swiss were determined to restore the 
damage. Less concerned with mass production than we are today, 
they insisted that planting must be of appropriate species. Though 
this sensitivity to landscape and the environment is still practised in 
Switzerland and Austria, in other countries forestry has deteriorated 
to the production of timber for cheap furniture, chipboard and fire- 
wood, as that is about all the poor quality of timber is good for. 

Forestry today is about planting single species' woodland to be 
harvested within as short a time as possible (while the trees are 
mere adolescents) in order to maximize the profit. A redwood for 


example, which has a lifespan of 2000 years, today is harvested after 
sixty years, before it can be fruitful, at about 3% of its potential. 
Without mature seed, the genetic base of the remaining seed has 
deteriorated to the point of infertility. The consequences of this 
madness are far-reaching, for as the biological diversity is depleted 
of its highest quality organisms, so too are the energies that support 
higher forms of life. The destruction of the forest brings with it the 
destruction of water, with appalling consequences. 


If you go into a typical plantation, it is impenetrable, dark, and feels 
dead — a veritable green desert. No birds sing nor animals scurry, 
and there is little opportunity for any other plants to grow. Those 
that do are removed on the theory that they take away nourishment 
from the trees. In fact their absence increases the competition. The 
individual trees are all of the same age and species; they vie with 
each other for space and for nutrients (of which there is a limited 
amount for each species), for their roots go down to the same level, 
creating a hard pan of salts which prevents access to the valuable 
minerals and energized groundwater below. There is only a certain 
amount of each element and chemical compound available which is 
suitable for that species and all the trees whose lives are wholly 
dependent on them must fight to get it. 

It is hardly surprising that the wood from such a plantation is 
of very poor quality. You might compare the composition of a 
human community to a forest. If all the individual humans were 
clones of each other, and there were no elder statesmen or wise 
elders, how creatively barren and spiritually impoverished would 
be that community! These young trees are clear-felled, leaving a 
scene of devastation, with the valuable soil vulnerable to erosion. 
Students of forestry do not yet learn the purpose of a natural for- 
est, nor about biodiversity, which is the keystone of Nature's 

Without natural forest, higher forms of life on this planet would 
not have been able to develop. Apart from oxygenating the atmos- 
phere and replenishing the water, both of which sustain life, it con- 
tains the vital pyramid of the different levels of life, without which 
creation would degenerate, as it is doing in our time. By a mysteri- 
ous process, forests encourage rainfall; appropriate trees planted in 


an arid or desert environment devoid of rainfall will often cause 
rain to fall, nourishing the trees, and starting the process of healing 
that environment. 


A natural, undisturbed forest has a rich diversity in colour and form 
that brings a sense of inner tranquillity and peace. With our warped 
sense of order we see the profusion of life as chaotic, whereas in fact 
it is in the highest state of order. Order in Nature arises from a sen- 
sitive state of balance in a highly complex ecosystem. What we often 
recognize as ordered is usually sterile and uniform. 

The natural forest is a community of vast numbers of species of 
plants, animals and micro-organisms which cannot flourish or even 
survive without each other. This interdependence is something we 
still little understand, and the tragedy is that, with the disappear- 
ance of the tropical rainforests, we shall lose the vital laboratory that 
is the most complex ecosystem on Earth. They contain literally mil- 
lions of species of fauna and flora, most of which we have not yet 
been able to study. Science does not yet fully understand either the 
full importance of biodiversity, nor how it is achieved, yet its preser- 
vation is essential to our salvation. There is a rapidly decreasing 
number of places in the world to study it, and they are hastily being 
converted to monoculture or to arable land, the exterminators of 

The rainforest has many layers of trees and shrubs, the high 
trees, the overstorey, protecting those below that need shade. The 
trees with deep root systems bring up valuable minerals and nutri- 
ents from below, beyond the reach of the more shallow-rooted. The 
micro-organisms on the forest floor thrive on the rich variety of 
leaves and provide valuable nourishment for all the plants. 

The ground remains cool and moist due to the protection of the 
trees overhead and the rich spongy humus can retain up to 85% of 
the rain, which recharges the water table and allows the full circula- 
tion of groundwater. This essential element of the natural forest is 
an early victim to deforestation for, when exposed to the elements, 
the ground surface quickly deteriorates, its ability to hold water 
compromised — for warm ground sheds the rain like concrete — 
which results in floods in the lands below. 

The trees that grow the tallest, or on the outer edge of the forest 


are equipped to withstand the heat and direct sunlight. They in turn 
protect those that are more delicate and light-sensitive, and the 
young trees that need the C0 2 -rich environment and coolness of the 
lower layers of the forest. 

Those trees and shrubs that are sensitive to light and heat are 
shielded from degenerative effects by varieties of tree whose struc- 
ture is designed to resist the heating. By the time the mother tree 
dies, its young are ready to take over the role of their parents. 
Because trees are allowed to mature and live out their full cycle, 
their seeds are of the highest quality, which ensures that the forest 
stays in good heart. Nature here, with this rich variety, is in a pro- 
ductive state of balance, what Schauberger calls 'changeable, unsta- 
ble equilibrium.' 

Clearly only Nature, whose very foundation is interconnected- 
ness, can truly create biodiversity, albeit slowly. Humanity, now the 
dominant species, if it is to survive, must replace its present meth- 
ods of cultivation, for forestry or food, with radically different meth- 
ods that are sustainable. The most promising experiments to this 
end have been made by Permaculture, an environmental movement 
founded by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in Australia in 1974. 9 
They have demonstrated how to create an integrated environment 
of plants that grow best in association with one another, protecting 
each other from pests. 

In these artificially created natural habitats, horticulture, 
forestry and animal husbandry are combined into a harmonious 
and sustainable whole. Shelter belts of trees are planted to protect 
the cultivated plots. The available water, the microclimate and the 
soil conditions are taken into account. Each human community is 
in this way able gradually to become more self-sufficient. Permacul- 
ture methods have been introduced, with great success, into coun- 
tries like India where the levels of poverty often restrict the ability 
of people to feed themselves. Natural methods of composting and 
fertilization are used instead of artificial fertilizers. 

High quality hardwoods are still coming out of equatorial and tem- 
perate forests and used for fine furniture and musical instruments. 
Soon these resources will be exhausted. Where else are we to find 
such fine wood? Since mass production has become the norm, 
understanding has been lost of the natural processes required to 
produce high-quality timber. Vast areas of land are cleared of trees 


completely, exposing the soil to the direct heat and light of the Sun. 
This raises the ground temperatures, the delicate soil-capillaries are 
destroyed which deliver nutrients and moisture to the soil — and 
the groundwater table sinks. Hardwoods will not be used in the 
replanting, as they require too long to mature for commercial 
exploitation. Reforestation is generally of softwoods such as pine, 
for contemporary forestry is not interested in quality or in long- 
term investment. 

Energy in the forest 

The Sun's energy reaches the Earth's surface as a full spectrum of 
light waves. In a natural, mixed forest, this energy is transformed 
into creative growth, the various plants absorbing different parts 
of the spectrum. The outcome of this is the production of good 
water, a humus layer teeming with bacterial life (which is an effi- 
cient counter to pollution), and an overall coolness and feeling of 
harmony. In Nature, a function that maintains any system (e.g. a 
forest) in a state of stable health and balance is the outer expres- 
sion of an inner creative force. It is significant that medicinal 
plants will grow only in a healthy forest where the biodiversity is 

A monocultured woodland, on the other hand, absorbs only a 
part of the light spectrum, the balance being given off as ambient 
heat. The Sun's energy is provided to create balanced life forms. If 
it cannot fulfil its creative functions, it becomes destructive, in 
this case overheating the monocultured trees. The energies are not 
balanced, and this discord affects all the creatures. The pulsation 
and harmonious interaction of the energies are disrupted, encour- 
aging disease and disharmony. Schauberger showed that highly 
ordered and diverse systems lose their stability when their envi- 
ronment suffers deterioration, indicating that we could expect 
moral and spiritual deterioration in the human community. 

In the human body a blood temperature of 37°C (98.4°F) is 
regarded as being healthy. Should it rise to 38.5°C (103. 1°F), symp- 
toms of distress are felt and we become susceptible to infection by 
life-forms that are normally dormant in the body, but which 
become activated between, say 38.2°C (100.6°F) and 38.6°C 
(101°F). The body will usually respond with a fever, which drives 
the temperature higher, destroying the bacteria or virus that 


brought the infection. Schauberger found that it is the same with 
trees. Their health is stable within a narrow range. When a tree 
becomes overheated, it becomes susceptible to parasites and fungal 
attack. It is not the parasites that cause the sickness, but the changes 
in temperature and energy balance. 


14. The Life and Nature of Trees 

Trees in the biosphere 

Humans have always had a very close interdependence with trees. 1 
Hominids came on the scene at one of those rarer times in Earth's 
history when a forest environment predominated. For the greater 
part of our short time on the planet, our ancestors grew up among 
trees. First they would slash and burn small clearings in the forest 
in order to grow crops. Wood was the greatest single resource to 
allow population to expand; it was the principal source of fuel and 
of building materials. These early societies were intimately con- 
nected with their environment; their shamans mediated with the 
life forces and the guardian spirits. The wildwood was treated with 

Part of the forest was earmarked for growing sustainable wood 
supplies. Mostly this was for coppicing, when the branches are cut 
just above ground level every five to eight years. This practice pro- 
duces an abundance of multipurpose straight branches and is emi- 
nently sustainable, encouraging re-growth. 

The elders and the shamans selected special stands of trees for 
ritual purposes, for worship and for thanksgiving. These sacred 
groves were their churches and cathedrals, with altars, nave and 
cloisters. Later, many groups moved onto the savannahs, but soci- 
eties like the Druids (dru means wood, wid, knowledge) in Roman 
times had complex tree classifications and tree medicines. The 
wildwood is a magical place, and it is not surprising that there is an 
immense richness of lore about the healing properties of different 
types of tree. 

There is an area in Gloucestershire, in the heart of England, still 
known as the Wychwood that was one of the last stands of primitive 
forest to disappear to the demands of building a wooden navy for 
English control of the seas. To this day there remains in this area an 
awareness of the magical qualities of the wildwood, and a memory 
of the rituals of healing and of working with the nature spirits. 

The tree is at the top of the botanical ladder, and is like a gateway 
between the human and plant kingdoms. The forest is a community 


with a hierarchy among the trees. Each area has its wise trees or 
grandfather/grandmother trees. The older parent trees succour and 
nourish the young saplings. 

Water is born from the fusion of molecular hydrogen and oxy- 
gen below the surface of the Earth, through the medium of subtle 
energies. The tree, with its roots deep in the ground, is intimately 
connected with the evolution of water. As we have seen, water takes 
the form of blood, lymph, sap and milk, the life-giving and main- 
taining fluids which are the basis for the growth and development 
of all life. Every living organism is therefore a column or container 
of water. 

The form of a tree 

All trees have a root system that absorbs nutrients from the soil and 
anchors the trunk; trunk and branches that define the shape of the 
tree and raise the crown to the sunlight; and leaves that perform the 
essential functions of photosynthesis, and making chlorophyll and 

The roots are the complement to the branches, securing the tree 
against wind and absorbing water that contains the energies and 
the minerals the tree needs to be healthy; they also play a vital part 
in the role of the tree as a biocondenser of energy. At the ends of the 
roots are magical organisms called protoplasms that convert the 
minerals from the inorganic to the organic state that the tree is able 
to use. There is a complex interaction between the roots and the 
bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms in the soil, which is part 
of the energy exchange between the tree and the earth domain. 

The trunk is formed for the most part from dead cells that give 
it rigidity and stability. The living parts are: the cambium that pro- 
duces new cork or bark to offset what is shed on the outside; the 
phloem with fine capillaries that carry oxygen, nitrogen etc, down to 
the roots, and the xylem, whose coarser channels allow ionized min- 
erals, salts, trace elements, carbonic acid or CO2 to flow upwards. 
Phloem and xylem are also found in the structure of leaves, where 
they perform a similar function. 

The crown is the most noticeable part of the tree, comprising 
branches, twigs, leaves, flowers and fruit or nuts. The leaves receive 
from the earth minerals and trace elements, C0 2 from the atmos- 
phere and the Sun's energy to drive the process of photosynthesis; 


the by-product of which is oxygen, vital for the sustenance of the 
animal kingdom and for other life-giving processes. 

Trees and humans — a symbiotic relationship 

The life history of a tree is also the life history of water. Trees are 
the highest form of plant life, as human beings are of animals. 
Humans and trees are marvellously interdependent (see Fig. 14.1). 
Trees, through the process of photosynthesis, exhale the oxygen we 
need for survival, and in return absorb the carbon dioxide we 
exhale. Of their total production of oxygen, 60% is released in day- 
light, the balance being used by the tree or plant itself during the 
night to produce cool oxidations that help to build the actual 
structure of the plant. As with so many of Nature's interdependen- 
cies, this is a symbiotic exchange, a cooperative transaction. Were 
there no trees and other vegetation there would be no animal, 
human or micro-organic life on this planet. Through our mindless 

deforestation, we have already reduced the amount of oxygen and Rg U l (bdow) The symMotic relation . 
water available to US. ship of animal and vegetable kingdoms. 2 

An ANIMAL is; 

A combustion or oxidation apparatus 
Possesses the faculty of locomotion 

or gives off 

An apparatus for reduction or deoxidation 
Is rooted to one location 

carbonic acid 
oxide of ammonium 





Neutralized nitrogenous matter 
fatty matter 
rs, gum 


Restores its elements to air and earth 
Transforms organized into mineral matter 


Derives its elements from air and earth 
Transforms mineral into < 


Trees and colour 

Another symbiotic relationship between trees and human beings 
is found with colour. The graph below (Fig. 14.2) shows the rela- 
tive intensities of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum, from 
the ultraviolet on the left through the visual spectrum to the 
infrared on the right. The darkest line shows the intensity of solar 
radiation relative to frequency or to the various shades of colour. 
In the visible part of the spectrum there is high human sensitivity 
to the green and low to the red and ultraviolet, whereas with the 
tree it is the opposite. A tree's sensitivity to light is a mirror to the 

The highest intensity of solar radiation is found in the green part 
of the spectrum. The tree cannot use these frequencies for its 
growth, for the greens induce dormancy. Whatever colour or fre- 
Fig. 14.2. The electromagnetic spectrum. quency is not absorbed, is reflected. A red surface, for example, 




100 200 4000 7000 50,000 1 .000,000 1-1000 cm 1-10 
III llll I 

Broadcasting Currant 
TV 200 to 545 Wavelength 
Ms. 3100 miles 

20 h 


2500 3000 3500 

4000 4500 500 5 500 6000 6500 70 00 750C 

i in 

[ if | 


000 30,000 40,000 50 ,000 

2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 


absorbs all colours except its particular shade of red. Many meta- 
bolic processes are triggered by specific frequencies, and if the 
required frequency of light is not available in sufficient quantity, 
then the response is blocked. 

A tree will absorb most in the ultraviolet or the red to infrared 
portion of the spectrum. It is insensitive to green light and, if placed 
under green light, appears to be in a state of suspended animation. 
The light sensitivity of the human eye on the other hand is exactly 
the opposite. It is insensitive to the ultraviolet and infrared frequen- 
cies, but very sensitive to the colour green. 

Because we cannot observe any green in sunlight itself, without 
trees and other vegetation, green would be missing in our experi- 
ence. Green is a very soothing, healing colour for humans, sedating 
the nervous system and psyche. Its absence in large cities can make 
us irritable and even violent. Trees and humans have a symbiotic 
relationship with colour. 

The physical nature of trees 

The structure of the tree is a record of its various stages of growth, 
and this is mirrored in the movement of sap over the full span of the 
tree's existence. As the life energy of the tree recedes with ageing, the 
sap sinks lower and lower, progressively drawing back from the 
uppermost branches, which die off. In many cases this is accelerated 
by human activity and the tree is said to suffer from 'die-back.' Like 
an elderly human being, the tree's structure stiffens with age, and 
like an elderly human, its consciousness falls back through all the 
stages of its previous development, perhaps re-living its earlier 

It is important in times of climate change to realize that the tree 
is probably the organism least adapted to rapid change. The average 
lifetime of a tree is the longest after rocks, and therefore many cen- 
turies must pass before any real adaptation to changed conditions 
can occur. Even minor environmental changes, to which other 
shorter-living things can adapt, can cause trees stress and vulnera- 
bility to disease, so that they wither and die. 

As long as too much heat does not stress them, trees will mod- 
erate heat through their absorption of CO2 and their evapo-tran- 
spiration. When the forest cover is substantial the trees distribute 
water vapour evenly through the atmosphere, ensuring a balanced 


distribution of temperature. The evaporating area of a mature 
beech tree, for example, with some seven million leaves, totals 
about 1.47 hectares (3.6 acres). 

Trees also break the strength of the wind, creating shelter for 
other life forms and lesser species of vegetation. The planting of 
shelter-belts (best in spiral form) reduces both the wind speed 
and the dehydration of the soil, creating microclimates that help 
the soil against erosion through the provision of additional 
humus and protection. Indeed shelter belts can influence the 
evaporation rate over cultivated land by as much as 30 metres 
upwind and 120 metres downwind, and Canadian research has 
shown that farms with a third of their land as shelter belts are 
more productive than farms of equivalent area where there are no 
trees at all. 

These shelter belts also trap carbon dioxide (CO2), the heaviest 
naturally occurring atmospheric gas, found mostly in the lowest 
levels of the atmosphere, and an essential component of photosyn- 
thesis. Increased CO2 under the right conditions will produce 
stronger photosynthesis. When trees and hedgerows between fields 
are removed, productivity falls, because this causes a fall in carbon 
dioxide. Trees should be revered as much as water, for together they 
are both are the givers of life. 

Tree classification 

Trees can be classified generally into seven major categories. These 
can be subdivided according to latitude, altitude, whether they are 
light-demanding or shade-demanding species (the former having a 
thick, rough bark and the latter a smooth thin bark), and whether 
they are hardwood or softwood, broad-leafed, conifer, evergreen 
and so on. 

Before we examine trees and their growth in relation to these 
categories in more detail, let us look at the specific contribution that 
trees make to the general environment. We give the example of a 100 
year-old tree, whose extraordinary performance was calculated by 
Walter Schauberger in the 1970s in relation to the average output of 
European species: 


During the course of its life, a hundred-year-old tree: 

a) Has processed and fixed the amount of carbon-dioxide contained in 1 8 million cubic metres of nat- 
ural air in the form of about 2500 kg of pure carbon (C). 

b) Has photo-chemically converted 9,100 kg of CO2 and 3,700 litres of H 2 0. 

c) Has stored up circa 23 million kilogram-calories (a calorific value equivalent to 3,500 kg of hard pit 

d) Has made available for the respiration of human and beast 6,600 kg of molecular oxygen (O2). 

e) Against the forces of gravity, has drawn from its roots right up to its crown and evaporated into the 
atmosphere at least 2,500 tonnes of water, every tree is therefore a water-column and if such a col- 
umn, which continually supplies and recharges the atmosphere with water, is cut down, then this 
amount of water is lost. 

f) Thereby fixing a mechanical equivalent of heat equal to the calorific value of 2,500 kg of coal. 

g) Has supplied a member of the consumer society with oxygen sufficient for 20 years, and its nature 
is such, that the larger it grows, the more oxygen it produces. 

In view of such achievements, who in the future could value this tree merely for its timber? 

The combustion of 100 litres of petrol consumes about 230 kg of oxygen. That is, after a trip of barely 

30,000 km (18,640 miles) (9 6 lit/1000 km), this tree's entire 100 year production of oxygen has been 


Driving an average size car 30,000 km (18,640 miles) = 100 years of oxygen production. 

If a person chooses to breathe for three years, to burn 400 lit of petrol or heating oil, or 400 kg of coal, 
then the production through photosynthesis of 1 tonne of oxygen is required. 
1 tonne of 2 = the 2 content of 3,620 m 3 of air (+15°C at latm) 
The photosynthetic production of 1 tonne of oxygen necessitates: 

a) The building up of 0.935 tonnes CeHi 2 06 (carbohydrate), 

b) which process requires 1.37 tonnes C0 2 (carbon-dioxide) and 0.56 tonnes H 2 (water) 

c) The transpiration of 230 to 930 tonnes H 2 

d) Light energy equal to 527 x 10 6 quanta (v = 440 x 10 12 ) which represents 3.52 million kilocalories. 

All this is no small achievement for a single organism! 
[Source: Walter Schauberger] 


Light- and shade-demanding trees 

There are two types of tree with very different requirements of 
light (see Fig. 14.3). The effect of light on tree growth has two 
principal energy outcomes. Partly it determines the structure of 
the timber and, secondly, it influences the form and character of 
the tree itself, depending on whether it is a shade-demanding or 
a light-demanding species; and these are also related to latitude 
and altitude. 

Trees mirror the quality of light in their natural habitat. If the 
frequency of green is harmful to them, they will use green leaves as 
they will screen out or repel that frequency. In general, if the inci- 
dent light has a greater proportion of high-frequency, high-energy, 
ultraviolet light, in other words hard light, the wood will be soft. 
Conversely, where there is a greater preponderance of low-fre- 
quency, low-energy, infrared, soft light, the wood will be hard. 4 

Australia's native timbers, notable for their hardness, are a good 
example of this. Because of Australias position on the Tropic of 
Capricorn in the southern hemisphere, the intensity of infrared 
light is greatest when Australia experiences its high summer, and 
when the Earth is also at its closest to the Sun at Perihelion in early 
January. This is increased by the infrared radiation resulting from 
Australia's semi-desert condition. Along with other countries in the 
southern hemisphere, Australia is therefore exposed to more 
intense infrared light than counties in the north which experience 
more moderate conditions. 

The new growth of many species of Australian trees presents a 
particular mixture of red, violet and blue hues, in order to resist the 
potentially harmful penetration of those light frequencies. In Europe 
and the temperate latitudes of North America, on the other hand, 
with their very different light conditions, most new growth is light 
green in colour, with some exceptions (like the copper beech). 

To summarize: Softwood species, such as pine, are mostly found 
in zones of high-energy, high-frequency 'hard' radiation, at low alti- 
tudes in high latitudes, and at high altitudes in low latitudes. Con- 
versely hardwood trees, with some exceptions, are generally found 
at low altitudes in low latitudes (tropical rainforests) and at low to 
middle altitudes at low to middle latitudes — zones of low fre- 
quency, 'soft' radiation. 


Tree types are determined to a great extent by: latitude and altitude. 

(1) LIGHT-DEMANDING timbers — THICK, generally rough bark (e.g. oak, black walnut) 

(2) SHADE-DEMANDING timbers — THIN, generally smooth bark (e.g. beech, birch) 

(3) HARDWOODS — thick (e.g. oak, jarrah) and thin bark (e.g. walnut, cherry, maple, red alder) 

(4) SOFTWOODS — thick (e.g. redwood, pine, spruce) and thin bark e.g. (hemlock, fir, larch) 

(polar latitudes) 
(high altitudes) 



(median latitudes) 
(median altitudes) 

(equatorial latitudes) 
(low altitudes) 

These boundaries are not necessarily clearly defined. 

High altitude trees such as spruce have a relatively short lifes- Fi g . 14.3. Tree type distribution, 
pan. Shortwave ultraviolet light, with its higher energy and inten- 
sity, has a faster dynamic motion with a smaller radius and shorter 
period tend to favour evergreens with soft wood. In contrast, low 
latitude or low altitude trees like the beech, where long wavelength, 
low-energy, low-frequency, less intense light predominates, has 
harder wood and a longer lifespan. 

Contemporary forestry practice requires trees to grow rapidly in 
girth, putting on a profusion of branches. What this produces is a 
great quantity of poor quality timber, full of knots. The disregard by 
forestry of the light factor is one of the causes of the deterioration 
of forests. 

The increase of tree diseases in both logged natural forests and 
in plantations is a direct result of the exposure to direct sunlight and 
heat of a shade-demanding species. There are two ways to deter- 
mine whether a tree is a light- or a shade-demander: 

Shade-demanding species have thin smooth bark; growing normally 
in the cooler inner forest, they do not need to insulate themselves 
from the heating effect of direct sunlight. Light-demanding trees on 
the other hand have thick, coarse, thermally insulating bark, which is 
Nature's way of protecting them from heat and direct sunlight. 


Shade-demanding trees grow additional branches to protect the 
trunk when exposed to light and heat, whereas light-demanders do 
not. The shade-demanding tree is rather like an introvert, reserved 
and extremely sensitive to external influences. They tend towards 
introspection, mental activity (predominant development of the 
tree's crown) and they are inwardly preoccupied and absorbed. 
They need a certain shielding and protection, peace and quiet to 
develop to maturity and their full potential. 

The light-demanding trees on the other hand are the extroverts 
that can happily stand on their own, reflecting their need for light 
and space around them. They tend to be more physically active, 
with branches radiating outwards. They are independent, outgoing 
individuals, which are generally more capable of standing on their 
own feet without support. 

Viktor Schauberger showed that the maintenance of an even 
inner temperature is vital to all trees, as to all organisms. When sun- 
light penetrates the trunk, the tree's metabolism is disrupted. It 
becomes overheated, the sap no longer flows as it should and the 
general structure of the tree becomes very coarse, leading to malfor- 
mations, cancerous growths in the interior, and so on. All shade- 
demanding trees, and under certain circumstances light-demanders 
too, will do everything they can to maintain or reinstate their pre- 
ferred inner temperature. 

This can be seen after a forest fire, when the trees that survive 
quickly cover themselves with a profusion of small shoots. The fire 
has blackened their bark so that, instead of reflecting the heat, it 
absorbs it and other radiation. Without protective cover the interior 
of the tree would quickly overheat and the flow of sap would reduce, 
no longer reaching the highest branches. 

Every species of tree has its particular pattern of energy frequen- 
cies, which determines its shape and supporting metabolism. If you 
like, Nature has given it a special niche in a particular environment. An 
increase in temperature changes its microclimate and the plant's nat- 
urally established metabolism can no longer operate healthily, and its 
wave pattern is disturbed. Instead of 'healthy tree,' there is 'sick tree + 
parasites.' It is important to understand that the parasites do not cause 
the sickness, but come as a result of it. Viktor Schauberger called them 
'Nature's health police' because of their role in removing all organisms 
that are not evolutionarily viable. The tree will rid itself of parasites 
once its metabolism has returned to healthy balance. 


Light-induced growth 

You can tell the age of a tree by counting the growth rings across the Fig. 14.4. Tree rings showing unbalanced 
cut trunk. These annual rings also tell you something about the con- growth, 
ditions under which it grew, and about the climatic variations. Con- 
ventionally, a wider space between rings is regarded as a good year 
for the tree, because it put on more growth; but greater quantity 
does not mean better quality. What it actually signifies is a tree 
under heat stress. This is best seen in Fig. 14.4; where the rings are 
widely spaced on the sunny side of the trunk, the heat caused the 
wood to expand; on the shaded side the metabolism has not been 
disturbed and the annual rings are close together. 

In a tree that grows in the shade with good soil conditions, the sap- 
ducts are virtually straight, producing strong vertical growth, and the 
timber has what might be termed a 'resonant' quality. 5 

Man-made depredations 

Viktor measured the biomagnetic energies in a tree that are respon- 
sible not only for its physical upward growth, but also for transfer- 
ring energies from the Earth to the atmosphere. The tree is in fact a 


biocondenser, reconciling the Sun's positive, affirming energy with 
the negative, receptive energy of the Earth. This important role is 
seen at its most productive in the tropical rainforest, where the 
enormous fecundity of Nature is best observed. 

Biomagnetism, a life enhancing process that puts bioelectricity 
to work, is present in all living organisms. Man-made electrical sys- 
tems interfere with Nature's biomagnetism. The shortwave emis- 
sions (microwaves) of the world's communication systems have, in 
many places, seriously interfered with organic life on Earth in the 
last sixty years. This is seen with the appearance of human cancers 
near radar establishments or electrical transmission lines, with 
microwave ovens or portable telephones. 6 It is also damaging trees. 
Radar seems to be responsible for the destruction of parts of the 
German forest, and the sub-arctic forest in Canada near the line of 
Defence Early Warning installations. 7 Viktor observed the early evi- 
dence of radar damage to trees; however, most of the destructive 
effects of microwave pollution have developed since he died. 

Microwave transmitters operate with wavelengths between 2cm 
and 50cm, exposure to which can inflict biological damage. 
Microwaves have an energetically disruptive effect, triggering dete- 
riorating changes in crystal structure. An example of the amount of 
free ambient energy being generated can be seen from the use of a 
neon-filled tube to test the system's working. Held parallel to the 
direction of transmission from a microwave transmitter, or a high- 
tension powerline, its spontaneous ignition confirms the ambient 
energy's strength. 8 

Similar disintegrative effects are found with domestic 
microwave ovens that operate on a wavelength approximately the 
same as that of radar. They generate vibrational heat in the mole- 
cules of the food. 9 Hydrogen, one of the constituent atoms of the 
water molecule, has a wavelength of 21cm, well within the band- 
width of current microwave transmissions. It is therefore likely to be 
damaged by the excessive microwave-induced heating. In the tree 
this leads to the breakdown of the structure of the sap, which like 
our blood, is about 80% water. This process also increases the 
amount of available oxygen within the tree, which results in unnat- 
ural metabolic acceleration. The tree, being rooted to the spot, 
unfortunately cannot escape the radiation emitted by microwave 
towers and high-tension transmission grids. 

Even though we are more mobile, humans too can become 


increasingly prone to blood disorders if exposed excessively to such 
radiation. People living in close proximity to high-tension cables 
have been shown to have a higher than normal incidence of disease. 
According to a study of the Commonwealth Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research Organization (CSIRO), an increase in tree ring width 
of Huon pines in Australia, more rapid in the last forty years than in 
any other period since AD 900, suggests that this internal microwave- 
induced warming is accelerating. We don't know what happened 
then; there may have been either a series of gigantic volcanic erup- 
tions or a massive increase in cosmic radiation. 

The importance of photosynthesis 

Nature works through pulsation, through inhaling and exhaling, 
like the ocean tides on the shore. The rising Sun draws up the tree's 
sap charged with trace-elements, gases and minerals, to support the 
process of photosynthesis and its conversion of C0 2 into oxygen 
(the inbreath). Photosynthesis, however, is intimately connected 
with the amount and the quality of the available light. When the 
level of light falls, then growth, photosynthesis and the creation of 
chlorophyll diminish and less oxygen is transformed and released 
into the atmosphere. Then the tide starts to ebb, and the sap ceases 
to transport the nutrients upwards. 

We think of photosynthesis as the process of converting CO2 to 
O2 for us to breathe, but it serves two functions vital for the tree 
itself: to convert the nutritious sap into carbohydrates (which 
releases O2) and to produce evaporation in the form of oxygen and 
water to cool the tree and release oxygen into the environment. This 
is not the vaporization associated with sweating, but is the effect of 
energy concentration or densification. Magnesium is required, in 
addition to H 2 and CO2, in order to make chlorophyll, the green 
protective pigment in the leaves, a third process which releases 2 . 
These three processes all require light (see Fig. 15.6). 

Exactly the same chemical formula that is required to produce 
chlorophyll, but without light (i.e. underground) also produces 
hydrogen (and magnesium carbonate). This free hydrogen is an 
essential ingredient for the production of water, the other being 
oxygen, which is provided by rainwater percolating into the 
ground. It is exciting to note that these two identical combina- 
tions of Mg, H 2 and C0 2 , one with and the other without light, 


are responsible for the two creators of life, water and photosyn- 
thesis (see Fig. 15. 6). 10 

We have noted a correspondence between times in the past 
when forests predominated on the Earth, and with major evolution- 
ary surges. It seems that trees have this magical role to fine-tune the 
proportion of atmospheric gases, particularly oxygen. The 'normal' 
proportions are O2 (oxygen) 20.95%, CO2 (carbon dioxide) 0.3%, N 
(nitrogen) 78.08% and rare gases 0.93%, though recent years have 
seen an increase in CO2 and a decrease in O2 due to human activi- 
ties. When we say that life creates the atmosphere (effectively the 
'greenhouse'), the symbiotic relationship is exceedingly complex 
Fig. 14.5. Photosynthesis. and miraculous. 


Without plants there could be no life. Plants convert sunlight into food by a process known as photosyn- 
thesis. They extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water from the soil and exhale oxygen: 

1) Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) + Water (H 2 0) = Photosynthesis + 2 ft 

in this way carbon dioxide and hydrogen combine and molecular oxygen is released (vertical arrow) 

2) C0 2 + H 2 + LIGHT -> CH 2 (theoretical carbohydrate) + 2 {> 

(C6Hi 2 06 = glucose, the simplest form of carbohydrate) 

3) Mg + H 2 + C0 2 + plus LIGHT -> Chlorophyll + 2 {f> 

(green pigment + molecular oxygen) 

The same elements in (3) above produce two important further reactions: 
(4) Mg + H 2 + C0 2 - minus LIGHT -> MgC0 3 + H 2 {> 

(magnesium carbonate + molecular hydrogen) 
or (5) Mg + H 2 C0 3 [carbonic acid] - minus LIGHT -> MgC0 3 + H 2 ft 

(magnesium carbonate + molecular hydrogen) 

In (4) and (5) the Mg can be replaced with calcium (Ca), which produces calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ) 
instead of magnesium carbonate, but with the same release of molecular hydrogen. 

These two almost identical, but still different combinations of magnesium, CO2 and H 2 are the prereq- 
uisites for the two principal carriers of life, namely water and photosynthesis (creation of chlorophyll and car- 
bohydrates). One of these takes place in daylight (the visible world) and the other in darkness (the invisible 
world). In the day zone, 2 is released and the overall amount of oxygen increased, whereas in the night-zone, 
hydrogen is released, leading to the rebirth of water through its combination with oxygen. 


The creation of water 

There is an important relationship between rainwater and trees. 
Raindrops absorb atmospheric oxygen, nitrogen and other trace- 
gases in their descent, but their downward spinning movement also 
generates intense bioelectric and biomagnetic fields. This creates an 
energy potential which is essentially life-endowing. When the rain- 
drops fall on the leaves of the tree, the oxygen and other gases are 
absorbed along with the immaterial energies collected, stimulating 
activity and growth. For this reason plants respond with much 
greater vitality and activity after a fall of rain than to conventional 
systems of irrigation where these gases and energies are virtually 
absent, due to the far shorter fall distance. 

It has frequently been observed that the planting of trees in arid 
or desert conditions causes an increase in rainfall. This is probably 
because chemicals that are a by-product of photosynthesis are emit- 
ted, which helps to generate clouds. 11 This is known to occur in the 
tropical rainforests, and it is likely to happen in other particularly 
warm areas. It is one of the most interesting feedback mechanisms 
that Gaia produces. 

When the ground surface is cooler than the air (i.e. it has a pos- 
itive temperature gradient) rainwater penetrates into the soil. The 
free oxygen is gradually absorbed by the surrounding soil, activat- 
ing micro-organisms in the humus upper layers of the soil. As the 
rainwater sinks deeper into the substrata and continues to release 
the excess oxygen, it gradually cools towards the +4°C anomaly 
point. As we have seen, free hydrogen is now available with which 
the now very passive oxygen is able to combine in the cool condi- 
tions, giving birth to new water molecules. 

This juvenile immature water, unpolluted by any other sub- 
stances or ingredients, is born near the temperature when its den- 
sity is highest, that is, about +4°C (39°F). It begins to rise up 
through the various energy-horizons (the most finely differentiated 
temperature strata), acquiring increasing 'information' in the form 
of subtle energies and resonances. 

The water molecules become warmer as they ascend, absorbing 
salts, minerals and trace-elements on the journey. Becoming ion- 
ized in the process they can be taken up by the plants and their 
micro-organisms. Salt (sodium chloride), for example, is broken up 


into its two components of chlorine (CI) and sodium (Na), which 
develop opposite electrical charges when ionized. It is transformed 
from an 'inorganic' substance with no electric charge, into two sub- 
stances which can be combined into organic form ready for combi- 
nation with its complementary polarity. 

The water has now become mature and can contribute life 
instead of seizing it, creating life-imparting macro water molecules 
whose nutrients are made more active by the increasingly available 
oxygen. As these molecules are drawn up through the capillaries of 
the plants or trees, their size is reduced, as energy and nutrients are 
passed to structures and chemical processes at different levels, con- 
tributing to growth activity. Their potency increases as the mole- 
cules become smaller until they are able to pass through the 
extremely minute foramen and stomata, when their energetic qual- 
ity reaches a maximum. The greatest growth and maturation occurs 
at this workface, the furthest extremities of the tree, plant or blade 
of grass. 

The maturation of water 

The developmental journey from the deeper strata towards the sur- 
face transforms water from a seeking, 'taking' system into a ripe, 
information-rich 'giving' one, when it is ready to distribute the 
widest variety of ionized elements in homeopathic doses to the liv- 
ing systems of its environment. It is here that this alive water, rich 
with minerals and trace-elements, meets the next, young, 'taking,' 
information-seeking systems — the fine hair-roots of the plant sys- 
tems and their micro-organisms, or 'micro transmuters.' The water 
is first taken up by the micro-organisms which transform the raw 
materials, elements, CO2, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. into larger molecules 
and fluid compounds ready for transport as larger molecules by the 
capillaries of the roots. 

The roots eagerly use some of these nutrients for their own 
development, but the coarse macro-molecules are sucked towards 
the centre and deposited in order to build up the central structure 
of the plant or tree. This increasing, but slower flowing quantity of 
formative material is built into the tree structure up to the level of 
the ground-surface. Here is the threshold of the visible, energetic 
world, endowed with a higher dynamic and suffused with radiant, 
fertilizing energy of the Sun. This is the point where the two aspects 


of the tree, the two systems of distribution, the seen and the unseen, 
meet and are united (see Fig. 15.6, p. 206). 

In the human body, the arteries and veins narrow towards the 
capillaries and enlarge towards the heart. The blood circulation is 
managed by subtle differences in temperature and electric charge, 
by energy density and energetic activity. There are two principal, 
pulsating circulation systems; one to the lungs to renew oxygen and 
discharge CO2 and water; the other from the heart to the rest of the 
body, delivering nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, on its 
return collecting and transporting C0 2 and waste matter. 

The tree, however, has no pulsating heart. The pulsators' respon- 
sible for the movement of its sap are the Sun and the Moon. As the 
world rotates, the direction of the Sun's and the Moon's attraction 
fluctuates from above to below, through which a pulsation arises 
between inhaling and exhaling. During the day, the sap draws the 
energies up the tree ('inhaling'), while at night the energy with- 
draws to the root system (exhaling). 

As the sap rises from the ground level, gradually the sap-ducts 
and capillaries begin to narrow and the coarser elements in the sap, 
unable to rise further, are built into the tree's structure at the point 
where their upward movement ceases. As the sap vessels get 
smaller, the faster the sap streams both upwards and downwards 
and the greater the homeopathic potential. Ultimately only the most 
minute particles, which are hardly to be counted as matter, stream 
up towards the crown or down to the roots with increasing spiral 
gyration, dynamic and energetic effect. 

The growth activity is at a maximum at the extremities of crown 
and root zones, because all that is active here are the most highly 
potentiated homeopathic resonances and amounts of barely struc- 
tured matter. This upward or downward stream of energy also has 
a nonmaterial, form-controlling aspect. At the outside edge of the 
growth process, the tree crown, energy radiates into the environ- 
ment, a process of life giving life, while at the root zone the energetic 
polarity seems to be that of life seeking life. 

A water molecule, when it reaches the crown, carries within it 
the highly active resonances of the trace elements previously 
taken up in the root zone. Refined to almost pure water again, with 
ultra-high potency and trace element overtone resonances, it 
arrives at the leaves' minute stomata. From these, it ascends into 
the atmosphere towards its energy and temperature anomaly 


point at an altitude of 3-4000 metres. Here it is once more in a 
'taking' mode, ready to take up the finer and more spiritual ener- 
gies from the Sun and the cosmos. 

This never ending water cycle over time brings a cumulative 
increase in 'information' which provides a fresh impulse for further 
processes and development that drive evolution. 


15. The Metabolism of the Tree 

All the processes that take place in water are reflected once again in 
the individual forms of vegetation. Viktor Schauberger 

Sap movement 

Viktor Schauberger has transformed our understanding of the 
metabolism of the tree. He showed how the movement of the sap 
under the conditions of both natural growth and of unnatural light- 
induced growth is determined by the temperature gradient within 
the tree itself, and by the external light, heat and cold. 

The solution, transport and deposition of nutrients, as we saw in 
Chapter 14, are functions of the temperature gradient. Salts and 
minerals are precipitated with cooling, when light and air are 
excluded; however, they are precipitated with heating when exposed 
to light and air. Under a positive temperature gradient, as the sap 
cools towards +4°C (39°F) or is maintained at this temperature, the 
highest quality nutrients are precipitated last. Under a strong nega- 
tive temperature gradient and with light and heat, the opposite hap- 
pens; only the lowest quality nutrients are expelled, the highest 
quality not being transported at all. 

We saw that the growth of shade-demanding trees takes place 
largely in the crown where the air temperature is usually higher 
than at ground level. The tree's overall shape is cylindrical, with few 
lower branches, because there is no need to protect the trunk 
against light. Lacking horizontal lighting, the trunk does not suffer 
large temperature fluctuations, so it produces closely set annual 
rings. The temperature in the trunk reduces from the outside 
inwards, resulting in an even deposition of growth material, which 
means high quality and dense timber. These shade-demanders have 
a slender girth because of their strong vertical sap movement, high 
health and associated levitational energies, that in a mature tree 
enables it to withstand gales. 

When a shade-demander is planted out in the open it has to cope 
with unnatural levels of light and heat, protecting itself as quickly 
as possible by sending out branches right down to the ground, at the 


Fig. 15.1. Cross section through 
tree trunk. 

The tight inner rings show normal growth of a 
shade-demanding tree. The outer rings show 
evidence of too much exposure to sunlight, 
following its neighbours' removal. 

expense of its upward growth. It develops a cone-shaped form, with 
much growth of branches on the lower part of the trunk. These will 
tend to grow on the sunny side of the tree, leaving it unbalanced and 

In its early years, due to high light exposure, a plantation tree 
exhibits wide annual rings and abnormal lateral branch growth (see 
Fig. 15.1). Once it receives some protection from its neighbours, the 
need for lateral branch growth diminishes and it will tend to grow 
upwards. However, in commercial woodland, the trees are thinned 
after a prescribed period, those considered suitable for use in con- 
struction going to the sawmill and the remainder to the pulp-mill. 
This thinning out exposes the remaining trees to excess heat and 
light. All their growth energy is diverted to growing branches on the 
exposed part of the trunk, mainly on the sunny side, which pro- 
duces knots and twisted, spongy grain. 

The annual tree rings tell the story of a tree's exposure to light. 
In Fig. 15.1, the rings near the middle show that in its early years, 
this 33-year old tree was exposed to unnatural levels of light and 
heat. The healthiest growth was in middle third of the tree's life, 
revealed by the annual rings at their closest. Its last years show the 
stress it experienced when its protecting neighbours were removed. 

High quality, resonant timber could be cut only from the area of 
closely spaced rings. A board cut from the full width of the trunk 
would warp as a result of the unevenness of the grain. For practical 
purposes the only source of good narrow-ringed timber that is firm 
and regular in its structure and less likely to warp, is a mature tree 
from a natural forest. A shade-demander in a natural forest or a 
plantation that is suddenly exposed to light will show irregular 
annual rings, an off-centre heart, sometimes heartrot, and radial 
cracks (called 'shakes') like those shown in Fig. 15.1. Excessive heat- 
ing, causing sponginess in the wood that often results in heart rot, 
and encourages bacteria and parasites causes the openness of the 
grain. This combination of conditions Viktor Schauberger called 
'tree cancer.' 

The conventional theory is that the movement of sap is caused 
by osmosis, or by differences in pressure between air pressure and 
the pressure in the capillaries. However, the absorbent raising action 
of osmosis is limited, and cannot account for the rising of sap in the 
highest trees, which can exceed 91m (300ft). Mechanical suction 
cannot be responsible either, as the limit for drawing up water is 



- M 




As the day warms 
up and during the 
day, bubbles of 
carbon dioxide 
completely fill the 
narrow, well-formed, 
healthy capillaries 
like corks and push 
water, sap and 
nutrients up the 
capillary in front of 

Water & sap 
C0 2 bubble 


As night cools and 
during the night, the 
sap cools and sinks, 
sucking down O s , N> 
and CO? and also 
deposits the 
nutrients brought up 
earlier in the day. 

Water or sap 



O f or Nf bubbles 

fine capillary 

■ —»■■-.. 

overheating of the 
trunk due to excess 
light and heat 
enlarges the 
movement becomes 
sinuous in the now 
over-size capillaries 
and the CO? bubbles 
can no longer assist 
in the raising of 
nutrients, sap and 

coarse capillary 
!>_tI structure 

9.81m (32.18ft). Viktor Schauberger found that it had more to do 
with a metabolic process: 

On many occasions I have already stated that the rising of sap 
in trees cannot be explained by the physical factors hitherto 
put forward alone, such as the effect of the external air pres- 
sure, etc., but that its explanation is to be found in the on- 
going metabolic processes in constant pulsation in every cell 
of the tree and is therefore a result of the vital activity of the 
capillary tree-cell. Professor Kurt Bergel of Berlin came to 
similar conclusions in relation to the activity of the heart and 
the blood in animal life. 1 

Fig. 15.2. Rising sap. 

As the day warms bubbles of C0 2 completely fill 
the narrow capillaries like corks, pushing water, 
sap and nutrients in front of them. As night cools, 
the sap sinks, sucking down the C0 2 , the sap 
and the nutrients. 

The healthy movement of sap is stimulated both by the pulsating 
action and by the extreme fineness of the capillaries to be found in 
a completely naturally grown tree (Fig. 15.2). When the carbonic 
acid contained in the water and sap is warmed, it is converted into 


Fig. 15.3. Viktor designed this surprisingly simple but ingenious experiment that anyone can replicate with simple laboratory equipment, 
which consists of a U-tube, the bend of which is filled with pure quartz sand that is then saturated with salt water. This effectively separates 
and prevents communication between each side of the U-tube, but the salt water can be displaced laterally when pressure is higher in one arm. 

The top of one arm has attached an adaptor to two fine capillary tubes, which allow contact with the air. The other arm has four fine 
capillaries attached to it. Both arms are now filled with fresh high quality spring water with little oxygen content, which has not been 
exposed to the Sun, or for long to the air. 

The U-tube is then placed in an insulated container, e.g. a bucket, containing ice at the bottom, and then filled with good loam. The 
ice will create an artificial environment of +4°C (39°F) at the bend of the U-tube, helping to bring about a positive temperature gradient 
from the top of the loam downwards. 

The container is then placed in the heat of the Sun and slowly as the +4°C (39°F) temperature is reached below and the higher water 
heats up, the water level in the arm with 4 outlets will rise and overflow as there is less resistance on that side, the water on the other side 
remaining level. The rise in the water level is assisted by the heat of the Sun converting the carbonic acid in the water into carbon dioxide 
bubbles that push the water bundles ahead of the them and pull the water behind, creating a pulsating effect. 

During the night the water on the 4-capillary side subsides, the carbones in the water having absorbed the oxygen and other gases from 
the atmosphere. This makes it specifically heavier, exerting pressure through the sand barrier on the other side of the U-tube, causing the 
water level in this tube to rise up its pair of capillaries. 

This replicates the natural process of pulsation that happens with all liquids in Nature, a pulsation which is caused by temperature difference, 
pressure and suction. This experiment sets out to duplicate particularly the conditions under which sap rises in the daytime (the four capillaries 
representing the xylem tubelets), falling back at night time (the pair of capillaries approximate the delivery of the phloem tubelets). 

To demonstrate the action of a natural spring, the adaptor with four capillaries is removed, leaving the shorter side open, so that the water 
rises and overflows on that side when the temperature difference is greatest between the +4°C (39°F) environment at the bottom of the 
bucket, and that at the surface of the loam. At night the water drops on the open side, rising on the side with the two capillaries. 


carbon dioxide, which forms bubbles. These bubbles act like little 
plugs and, as they rise, push the intervening packets of water, sap, 
etc, ahead of them, pumping the water with the nutrients and the 
sap right up to the furthest extremities of the crown. 

The sap rises during the day when the tree exhales oxygen 
through photosynthesis. When the Sun sets and the temperature 
drops, this process is reversed as it breathes in oxygen to help build 
up the root system and the trunk of the tree. Nightfall initiates the 
retreat of the sap, which becomes denser through cooling and is 
drawn towards the root-zone. The capillaries in the crown of the 
tree are evacuated, creating a partial biological vacuum as the CO2 
gas-bubbles condense and begin to sink (see Fig. 15.6). 

The CO2, nitrogen, oxygen, starches, sugars, and trace gases 
formed during daytime photosynthesis are drawn down through the 
minute stomata and pores in the leaves, down the trunk, some of 
them reaching the hair-roots. Their purpose here is to nourish the 
life-functions of the tree during the night and provide the material 
for building the structure of the inner fabric of the tree as a whole. 
As the crown and the trunk cool down, the root-zone warms up and 
the opposite happens to what took place during the day. This keeps 
the soil warm during the night and in winter, and cooler during the 
day and in summer. The ground temperature in this way is prevented 
from overcooling or overheating, greatly benefiting the micro-organ- 
isms in the humus. 

Light-demanding trees are able to work in the same way because 
they have thick bark or, in some cases, a light-coloured bark with a 
high reflective factor to protect them from the greater heat and light 
which would interfere with this delicately balance metabolic 

The cambium layer (see Fig. 15.4, p. 204) is the active zone where 
the growth of the tree takes place through the interaction of two 
electrically charged fluids. The negatively charged phloem contain- 
ing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc, flows down the inner side 
of the dielectric, while the positively charged xylem, containing ion- 
ized minerals, salts, trace-elements, carbonic acid or CO2, flows up 
the outside. Between these two streams and through their interac- 
tion, the proto-annual ring is transformed into a proper annual 
ring. The life history of the tree is imprinted on these annual rings. 

Fig. 15.3 (opposite). Rising sap 

The constant pulsation in the capillary tube 
mimics the principle of rising sap in the tree, just 
like the pulsation that causes blood circulation in 
the body (a propos of which Schauberger also said 
'There is no condition of equilibrium in 


Fig. 15.4. Horizontal section 
through trunk. 

This shows how the growth rings act as charge 
separators or dielectric layers. 

direction of greater harmonic, energetic structui 

Temperature gradients in the tree 

Temperature gradients are important in tree metabolism. The areas 
of active growth in the outer trunk and in the branches need heat 
energy to sustain the formative elements in a productive, ionized 
and fluid state for the processes of combination and re-combination 
to take place. 

During the daytime, a positive temperature gradient is active 
from the outside inwards, the cooler, more internal sap rising faster, 
transporting the finest nutrients up to the top of the tree. They are 
taken to the foliage, for the small green shoots, flowers and repro- 
ductive elements required for the highest quality growth. Viktor 
Schauberger's measurements showed that this upward flow could 
be as fast as 3m (10ft) per hour, or 50mm (2ins.) per minute. The 
lower quality, coarser nutrients present in the outermost layers of 
the cambium ring (just inside the bark), needed for building the 
structure of the tree, are raised only as far as their fineness permits, 
the coarser being deposited in the trunk, the finer later in the 
branches. The effectiveness of this process depends on a negative 
temperature gradient being active from the outside inwards (cooler 


outside > warmer inside) during the hours of darkness, in its func- 
tion as depositor or precipitator. 

With rising air temperatures, the point where the positive and 
negative temperature gradients meet within the tree shifts to deeper 
levels. The flow of the sap becomes more sluggish and the positively 
charged nutritive elements are held in near stationary suspension at 
various heights to await the arrival of the negatively charged ele- 
ments from above. This may be the reason why the Amazonian rain- 
forest stops producing oxygen towards midday. The positive 
nutrient-transporting temperature gradient soon changes to a neg- 
ative one as the temperatures rise rapidly during the morning. This 
arrests the supply of nutrients; photosynthesis ceases and with it, 
the expiration of oxygen is interrupted. 

With nightfall and the cooling air, the temperature gradient 
reverses to positive from the inside outwards, so that the outer lay- 
ers of the tree become cooler than the inner. The crown cools faster, 
causing the sap to sink quickly. The higher temperatures of the 
Amazon rainforest cause fast evaporation, to bring accelerated 

Fig. 15.5. Vertical trunk section. 
This shows ring temperature decreasing inwards, 
and the flow of nutrients in the xylem, upwards 
in daytime, descending at night. 

Direction of greater harmonic, energetic structuring 


Descent of the phloem 
-flow to the roots 


(Cambium layer) 

Annual rings 

. is vr s \ X \ ym. 

K ,\ y Increase in transport of matter '\ J^AWS 

T s Vl-'*-7 r . due to reduction in temperature . | \ f \ UKU 

+ fW" + - \+ - \+ - \+ - v+ -\+ 



Ascent of the xylem - 
I flow to the crown 


Increased growth tnrough reduction In sap-flow 
velocity and increased temperature 

\ w 

7.5" 7.8" 8.3" 8.8" 


10.7" 11.5° 12.5" 13.6° 

Direction of greater energetic density 
Direction of temperature decrease 


rainwater contains 

C0 2 + HjO + sunlight = photosynthesis + O s | 
C0 2 + H s O " C HzO (carbohydrate) + 2 j 
Mg + H 2 + C0 2 + sunlight - Mg C0 2 + O a T 

released into atmosphere) 

The Visible 

free 2 absorbed by micro-organisms 

Fig. 15.6. The metabolism of the tree. 

The vital exchange between the yang solar and the yin earth energies for the production of photosynthesis, 
chlorophyll and carbohydrates and its role in the production of water. 

cooling of the sap which, sinking after midday, does not reverse 
direction until the following day. The oxygen and other gases con- 
tained in the negatively -charged phloem are drawn down towards 
the root-zone. By this means, oxygen is made available to assist 
decay in the upper reaches of the soil, and to stimulate growth 
around the root tips (Fig. 15.6). 

During the night the descending phloem plays another impor- 
tant role. It interacts with suspended positively-charged xylem and 
because of the prevailing positive temperature gradient (Figs. 15.4 
and 15.5) is drawn towards the exterior of the trunk. This produces 
new wood growth that is made denser and harder with winter cold, 
forming an annual ring. 

In a commercial plantation a shade-demanding tree grows more 
branches in order to protect itself. The sap is therefore diverted from 
its normal progress up the trunk to nourish the spurious branches, 
twisting around the extra knots in the trunk. The excess heat also 
makes the sap ducts larger in diameter so that the carbon-dioxide 
bubbles are not able raise the fluids required for healthy growth. 
Insufficient nutrients are able to reach the crown of the tree, which 
is likely to suffer die-back; high quality timber is no longer pro- 
duced, and the tree will have a limited lifespan. Sprouting foliage 
shows the height to which the sap is able to rise. 

Because of unnatural high internal temperatures there is pre- 
mature deposition of nutrients, a condition akin to arterio-sclero- 
sis in the blood vessels of humans. The higher temperature also 
limits the rise of these coarse materials, which are deposited near 
the base of the trunk, causing a cone-shaped trunk. With its levita- 
tional energies thus weakened, such a tree more easily falls victim 
to storms. 

The tree as a biocondenser 

We discussed earlier how the formative energies (which belong to 
the fourth and fifth dimensions) carry the blueprint for the evolu- 
tion and physical manifestation of all organisms. This life-force car- 
ries with it an electrical charge. The process of growth and 
development of any organism requires that this life-force is 
enhanced or potentiated by a process known as biocondensing. 

As part of its important role in Nature associated with the two cre- 
ators of life, water and photosynthesis, the tree acts as a biocondenser, 


a) mgm Xtyivuroiiks 

b) Ctypsis Arnleata 
f) Ptihatilta Praltnsis 

d) Cimum Canum 

e) Ccmaureii Stgebf 

f) Centaurea St&biostt 

$) Peucetkauffi Oreosdinum 

h) Pitnpinclla Saxifrtiba 

i) lirytigium Catnpesire 

50 cm 

100 cm 

Fig. 15.7. Various root systems. 
In the evolution of plants, first primitive ones (a 
& b) take root, making use of the low-grade 
nutrients at the warm surface. They allow a little 
soil and moisture to accumulate. As the soil cools 
off, the water table slowly rises, bringing up 
deeper minerals and nutrients. This allows higher 
plant forms to develop (c to i), which hold the soil 
together and encourage humus to form, which 
attracts micro-organisms that break down the soil, 
increasing the fertility and richness, causing the 
pioneer plants to die off. 

whose purpose is to increase the potency of the life force towards the 
tips of both branches and roots. 

In Chapter 7, we saw how the Earth may become charged with life 
energy through its terrestrial biocondenser. Trees work in a similar 
manner, the annual rings forming the dielectric separators between the 
electrically charged areas. When these are closer together, the potential 
(the dynamic energy) is increased, which occurs higher up the trunk. 
In the central part of the trunk some growth takes place, but the most 
energetic growth happens at the ends of the new shoots. 

The diameter of the trunk reduces as the tree grows taller, which 
makes the annuals rings grow closer together, increasing the bioelec- 
tric potential. At the very top of the tree the potential is very high. 
Finally in the leaves themselves the energy potential is at its maximum. 
This is necessary for the critical process of evapo-transpiration to take 
place. The sap capillaries are extremely small, so that the substances 


having only the finest materials with the highest of nutritive qualities 
remain, the coarser having been left behind to build up the structure of 
the lower part of the tree. 

In addition, this refinement of the energy at the leaves gives it a 
kind of increased homeopathic potency; so that when they receive 
the highly energized drops of falling rainwater there is an immedi- 
ate transfer of pure energy or life force. It is therefore hardly surpris- 
ing that this is where the most intense growth takes place. 

These areas of dense growth where the biocondensers are 
located are finely structured and susceptible to damage, either by 
being pierced, or disturbed by excessive warming. If this happens, 
the biocondenser fails, disease sets in and the tree dies. 

By inserting copper probes, Walter Schauberger was able to 
record significantly high electrical charges between the cambium 
layer and the heart of the trunk, sufficient to light a small flashlight 
bulb. The healthier and more naturally had the tree grown, the 
brighter the light observed. 

Root systems 

The root system, being the invisible part of the tree, has an aura of 
mystery. A germinating seed puts down a root into the darkness before 
it sends a shoot into the light. The root system is the complement to 
the canopy, and its energy exchange system is just as complex. 

It is important to see the whole tree as an energy pathway that 
brings about a marriage of the negatively charged energies of the 
Earth (a receptive, female system) with the positively charged ener- 
gies of the atmosphere and the Sun (a radiating, male system). Out 
of this union comes the primary manifestation of the organism, 
'tree' — with its secondary life-enhancing processes of chlorophyll 
production and photosynthesis. 

We are taught wrongly that there is a one-way transport of 
nutrients from the roots to the leaves. The very fine root tips, with 
their tiny capillaries, correspond to the new, growing leaves in the 
tree canopy, and at night the descending energies and nutritive ele- 
ments contribute to the important processes that these root tips 

At the ends of the root tips are tiny protoplasms, little chemical 
factories that perform the important task of converting minerals 
from their natural metallic to the organic form that the tree is able 


to absorb. They are also responsible for transferring yang energy 
and nutritive elements derived from the tree crown, to increase the 
vitality of the soil, without which the micro-organisms would be 
unable to flourish. In addition, they release hydrogen, which com- 
bines with free oxygen in the soil to give birth to new water. So it is 
clear that these protoplasms perform invaluable functions. 

Even a gardener probably has only the vaguest idea of how a root 
system develops. To hold up the plant stem is one purely physical 
function. There is, in fact, the widest possible variety of root forms 
and systems, the diversity of which is essential to healthy micro- 
environment, because each species' roots go down to a different 
level in the soil, bringing up different nutrients and energies. 

Trees are described as being flat-rooted, heart-rooted, tap- 
rooted and deep-rooted, the last evaporating more water than 
heart-rooted trees, and flat-rooted trees evaporating least of all. 
Each plant species, therefore, has its own particular root structure, 
which penetrates to a different soil horizon to withdraw the ele- 
ments it needs. But other plants will share some of these nutrients 
also. Fig. 15.7 illustrates the wide variety of root systems. 

When plants first appeared, about 420 million years ago, climatic 
conditions were inhospitable, with severe storms and heavy rain. 
Only the most primitive plants could gain a hold, feeding on the salts 
and metallic minerals. Although they had very little root growth, the 
stems above ground were able to trap some nutritive wind-borne 
dust to form very primitive soil, their shadows having a slight cool- 
ing effect on the ground, allowing some moisture to collect. 

Soil and nutrition 

Cooling was the key to the appearance of water, and as the ground 
cover spread, the lowering temperature affected the deeper ground, 
allowing the water table to rise, bringing with it minerals, trace ele- 
ments and nutritional substances nearer to the surface. This created 
the conditions for higher quality plants to evolve. Requiring better 
quality nutrition, these higher plants had deeper root systems that 
brought up minerals from a different horizon, but were no compe- 
tition for the pioneer plants. 

The more evolved plants held the soil together, trapping more 
moisture that helped to attract micro-bacterial activity to break 
down the mineral particles into finer dust, the first step towards the 


humus that is necessary for even higher plant forms. The root sys- 
tems become more complex, interweaving at different levels, so that 
they cannot easily be separated. Greater fertility brings a richer soil 
that is of too high a quality for the pioneer plants, which will now 
disappear. A more favorable microclimate in the higher soil 
increases the diversity of the bacteria, encouraging more complex 
root systems. 

There is a magical and symbiotic relationship between the vari- 
ous root systems that we cannot easily observe below ground, more 
complex than the interrelationships of the plants above ground. 
With greater complexity, and the evolution of trees, the soil takes on 
the full yin energy potential of Mother Earth, and with it the cre- 
ation of virgin water, an essential requirement for higher life forms. 

This process of soil formation took several million years before 
larger plants, such as small bushes and trees, were able to gain a 
hold; and they had to go through thousands of years of evolution 
before a forest was possible. The forest is the most productive envi- 
ronment for the building up of soil and fertile humus. It is self-fer- 
tilizing and self-sustaining. The great forests were able, over a 
period of thousands of years, to build up twenty feet or more of soil 
depth. With our heedless disrespect for Nature's bounty, in one cen- 
tury we have allowed these great soil banks to be eroded and 
destroyed, first through deforestation, and then by careless tilling of 
the unprotected soil surface. 

The web of life that evolves in a natural forest is so complex and 
sensitive that the removal of key species can cause a depletion of the 
energy that can lead to a progressive decline of the system, as more 
species fail for want of the sustenance that was provided by the 
missing species. A hole is created in the complex root network that 
is the interconnecting link between the deeper ground and the sur- 
face. The root system raises the water table. A missing species also 
means a hole is created in the water system that supplies the nutri- 
ents. Over time, a shortage of nutrients puts more plants under 
stress, leading to more species disappearing. 

Something like this happens with our monoculture systems, for 
the nutrients are not able to rise through the crusty layer formed at 
the level to which all the same species' roots descend. This leads to 
depletion of fertility and all the energies associated with it; unifor- 
mity means sterility, something that Nature abhors. 



Working with Nature 

16. Soil Fertility and Cultivation 

Our primeval Mother Earth is an organism that no science in the 
world can rationalize. Everything on her that crawls and flies is 
dependent upon her and all must hopelessly perish if that Earth dies 
that feeds us. Viktor Schauberger 1 

The crisis in intensive farming 

When there was great enthusiasm in the 1930s for the much publi- 
cized glamour of industrialized agriculture, Viktor Schauberger was 
very aware of its pitfalls, developing a number of field tests which 
demonstrated the fallacy of the new technologies. Though he did 
not live to see the dramatic agricultural catastrophes of the 1990s, 
to a large extent he predicted them. 

Intensive farming developed first in the Americas, where the 
limitless vast open plains could be cultivated or grazed in only very 
large units. At first in North America, and then on the South Amer- 
ican plains, this meant enormous herds of cattle or highly mecha- 
nized crop cultivation. Because of the inevitable depletion of 
minerals and, as a consequence of monoculture, intensive farming 
of this kind soon leads to the widespread use of chemical drugs or 
artificial fertilization with animals, and herbicides with cultivation. 
By its very nature intensive agriculture is unsustainable, but it is a 
big and profitable international industry and, as we all know, we are 
living at a time where big profits count for more than human or eco- 
logical values. 

There is a growing interest in sustainable cultivation, and 
there are many books on the topic. It is impossible to grow crops 
without a loss of fertility in the soil. We shall be examining differ- 
ent methods of fertilization from the inorganic to increasingly 
higher organic and energetic processes. Viktor Schauberger's 
whole research was deeply committed to improving food quality 
and soil fertility. He had original ideas about fertilization, but his 
most intriguing ideas were concerned with amplifying the subtle 
energies of the planet to bring about higher quality in the plants 


Ploughing methods 

Viktor Schauberger's interest in soils was initiated during a visit to 
Bulgaria in the 1930s where he had been commissioned to build a 
log-flume. King Boris asked him to look into the decline in soil pro- 
ductivity and the shrinkage of the water table in the northern parts 
of the country since the introduction of modern mechanized farm- 
ing methods. The southern part, on the other hand, was still fertile, 
with abundant moisture. 

Viktor found that in the poorer southern part of the country, 
populated largely by people of Turkish origin, the fields were 
tilled with traditional wooden ploughs pulled usually by teams of 
women. These fields remained very fertile and productive, with 
high crop quality. In the north, however, the fields were ploughed 
with tractor-drawn steel ploughs. As he was aware of the destruc- 
tive effect that steel and iron have on water in the soil, 
Schauberger attributed the disappearance of the water and the 
poorer yields to the use of the steel ploughs and the faster 
ploughing in the north. This knowledge led him to invent a new 
kind of plough and to do a number of experiments on improving 
soil fertility. Before going into this, however, we need to under- 
stand more about electromagnetism. 

Two kinds of electromagnetism 

Viktor already recognized that in Nature there are two types of elec- 
tromagnetism, just as there are two kinds of temperature change. 
The one that encourages growth and stimulates energies in all 
organisms he called bio magnetism or bioelectricity; the elements 
connected with this form of electromagnetism (diamagnetism) are 
copper, bismuth and gold. 

The other, ferromagnetism, usually just called magnetism, 
when combined with an electric current, is the form that is com- 
monly used in electric motors and dynamos for the generation of 
electricity. In Nature this form of energy is used to break down 
substances. In water's case it disintegrates the water particles into 
its constituent atoms. The elements of ferromagnetism are iron, 
nickel and cobalt. 


The golden plough 

Wherever we look, the dreadful disintegration of the bridges of life, 
the capillaries and the bodies they have created, is evident, which has 
been caused by the mechanical and mindless work of Man, who has 
torn away the soul from the Earth's blood — water. 
Viktor Schauberger 2 

Viktor observed how steel ploughs damage the soil. Drawn rap- 
idly through the ground, the hard steel ploughshares generate 
minute ferro-electric and ferro-magnetic currents that decom- 
pose the nutrient-laden water molecules in the soil, in a manner 
similar to electrolysis, resulting in water loss. The surface tension 
of the water molecule is reduced, the soil loses its energy poten- 
tial and its nutritive subtle energies are dissipated. This not only 
destroys the soil's subtler energies, but also converts the nutritive 
elements or removes them from the mature water molecule. The 
residual water becomes pure juvenile water that has no nutritive 

Abrasion with the soil removes tiny particles of steel from the 
cutting surface of the plough, which break down to rust, an ideal 
breeding ground for harmful pathogenic bacteria. An increase in 
the iron content of soil inhibits its water retention. On the other 
hand, soils high in copper have the capacity to retain greater quan- 
tities of water. 

The delicate soil capillaries that deliver nutrients and water to 
the surface, and some of the micro-organisms that process them are 
destroyed by the heat-producing friction and the compacting pres- 
sure of the steel plough. As the normal supply of nutrients from 
below is cut off and the water table falls, the soil fertility suffers. 

Schauberger started to experiment with copper, initially as a 
plating of thick copper over a conventional steel plough. The 
destructive ferro-electromagnetic effects of the steel plough were 
thus replaced by beneficial bioelectromagnetic ionization, enhanc- 
ing growth and soil fertility. Because of the remarkable results it 
achieved, this came to be known as the 'Golden Plough.' 

Field trials were conducted near Salzburg in 1948 and 1949 to 
compare the results of the new plough with the conventional steel 
plough. Fields strips were ploughed, alternately using steel and 


Fig. 16.1. 15 cm long ears of rye with up 
to 104 grains/ear. 

Fig. 16.2. Potatoes grown on Alpine farm 
at Kitzbuhel, Tyrol. 

copper-plated ploughs. When the grain came up the differences 
between the alternate strips was quite apparent. Where the copper- 
plated plough had been used the water content and the nutrient 
energies of the soil had been increased, and the corn stood about 
6-8 inches higher with a much fuller head. Some yields in the 
strips ploughed with copper-plated implements increased by up to 
40% compared to the control strips where conventional steel 
ploughs were used. As all other factors of soil chemistry, orienta- 
tion, furrow width, etc., were identical, the difference in yield was 
clearly due to the use of the copper plated plough. 

With two crops there were spectacular results. 15cm long ears of 
rye produced an average of 104 grains each (Fig. 16.1). In another 
experiment in Tyrolean Kitzbuhel potatoes weighing nearly half a 
kilo, containing over twenty eyes' (the source of next year's crop), 
were produced (Fig. 16.2). 

The Bio-plough 

The conventional ploughshare forms a pressure wave and makes a 
crushing cut that destroys the soil capillaries. Schauberger in 1948 
encouraged a Hamburg engineer Jurgen Sauck to develop a sharp 
curved blade to create a long slicing cut before the soil is cen- 
tripetally involuted in a figure of eight motion through the curving 
wings of the phosphor-bronze ploughshare, copying the burrowing 



Fig. 16.3. The bio-plough, 1948. 

the mole. The dashed line with an arrow shows 

action of the mole. This was called the bio-plough (Fig. 16.3) 
because it enhanced the energy in the soil. Its action was to rotate 
the soil through 360°, so that what was originally on the surface was 
returned to the surface. This minimized water loss and the sub-sur- 
face micro-organisms were never exposed to direct sunlight (heat) 
and could continue their work undisturbed. 

These experiments clearly proved the great advantage of the cop- 
per-based ploughs. The great increase in productivity with their use 
would quickly recover the cost of replacing iron or steel ploughs. The 
trials had created a lot of interest, but Viktor came up against bureau- 
cratic corruption that defeated his plans. Copper being in short sup- 
ply just after the war, he had to go to the Ministry of Agriculture to 
obtain what he needed. It is alleged that the Minister was being 
seduced with large bribes by the chemical companies to introduce 
chemical fertilizers, and indicated that he expected Viktor to do the 


same. Of course Viktor would not, so the copper ploughs never went 
into production. Because Viktor's research is not publicized in other 
countries, the copper ploughs were forgotten about, though the 
Schauberger research institute, the PKS, has encouraged the devel- 
opment of copper gardening tools that are now being marketed in 
many countries (see Resources). 

Alignment of furrows 

In his study of crop yields in Bulgaria, Viktor Schauberger realized 
that there were factors other than the use of steel versus wooden 
ploughs to explain the differences in productivity between the 
north and south. The fields in the north were also harrowed, which 
broke the soil into much smaller particles and made it more vulner- 
able to drying out in the hot sun to several inches of depth. 

In the Turkish south of the country, the farmers could not afford 
to harrow, and their ploughing was much more rough and ready. 
The furrows they made were irregular and rough, producing large 
clods that fell in different directions. The unevenness of the furrows 
meant that there were no large flat surfaces to absorb the heat of the 
Sun. This messy looking surface also had the advantage of holding 
the moisture in the top layers of the soil. 

The lesson to be learned from these examples was to cut sinu- 
ous furrows so as to vary exposure to the Sun's rays, but in addition 
to give them a north-south alignment, so that the inclined surfaces 
of the furrows would be shaded for part of the day and exposed to 
the Sun only when it was low in the sky. This meant that the young 
growing sprouts had the maximum amount of moisture when most 

Grazing and grass cutting 

Conventional mechanical grass mowers have an effect on the grass 
similar to that of the standard iron plough on the soil. The inclined 
blade uses a crushing action that damages the capillaries of the 
grass stalks, and shreds the top of the stalks for several millimetres, 
allowing the grass to bleed and bacteria to enter. Instead of apply- 
ing its energies to new growth, the grass stems have to heal the 
wounds, which can take a week. 

Viktor Schauberger's observation of animals was profound. He 


would watch the cows on the fertile high Alpine pastures. The graz- 
ing animal gathers the grass stems together in a spiralling move- 
ment with its tongue, cutting them with a jerk of its head so as not 
to damage the stalks. It then seals the ends of the stalks with its 
moist nose to prevent the loss of moisture and energy. 

The Alpine farmers needing as much winter fodder as they 
could get, would crop the grass sometimes three times in the sum- 
mer. Their implement is the much-cherished scythe that delivers a 
long, slicing cut, thereby keeping the wound area to a minimum. But 
more than that, their method of sharpening the blade imparts to it 
an ionizing energy that draws together the damaged fibres and rap- 
idly seals the wound. 

Those who have lived close to the land for many generations use 
Nature as their teacher. These farmers knew that sharpening a 
scythe with a stone robs it of its charge of energy. Instead they 
would hammer the blade on a block of hardwood which enhanced 
the electrical charge. Mounted on a wooden handle, wrapped in 
cloth and stored in darkness ensured that it would keep its charge. 

Schauberger understood that the Sun's light and heat would dis- 
charge a newly sharpened scythe and, for that reason, these farm- 
ers would do their blade hammering early or late, and their scything 
in the early morning or evening. The accumulated energies could be 
seen as minute glowing sparks on the blade, leaping from one ser- 
ration to another in the growing darkness of a summer evening. 

We have lost this knowledge, and today soil fertility and produc- 
tivity are in dangerous decline, ironically, because of the heavy use 
of artificial fertilizers as well as misguided techniques. 

Artificial fertilizers 

Contemporary agriculture treats Mother-Earth like a whore and 
rapes her. All year round it scrapes away her skin and poisons it with 
artificial fertilizer, for which we have to thank a science that has lost 
all connection with Nature. Viktor Schauberger 3 

The pioneer of modern artificial fertilizers was Justus von Liebig 
(1803-1873), a German chemist. His research into the elements and 
chemicals required by plants for growth found that four principal 
minerals were often deficient in agricultural soils. To increase fertil- 
ity he advocated the supplementation of calcium (Ca) in the form of 


lime, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), the last 
three often referred to as NPK. 

These products are soluble and mostly they are by-products of 
what Viktor Schauberger called 'fire-spitting technology' They are 
produced by heat, which is structure-disintegrating and energy- 
depleting and applied by either spraying or by powder diffusion. 

Chemical companies were quick to manufacture these new 
products as a way of turning waste material to profit. Liebig later 
realized that the ingredients necessary for healthy plant growth 
were far more complex than simple NPK. Indeed he warned that 
dependence on these basic chemicals could irreparably damage the 
soil, but nobody was listening. The rapid spread in the use of artifi- 
cial fertilizers led to a systematic depletion of soil fertility as it lost 
its organic base. A highly mechanized system of cultivation, using 
steel ploughs and artificial fertilizers reduced large tracts of mid- 
western America to dustbowls, forcing the ruined farmers to leave 
their land. The same is now happening in many third world coun- 
tries, like India, where multinational chemical companies are 
demanding the replacement of traditional methods in favour of 
chemically dependent agriculture. 

When the dependence on chemicals was first exported, it was 
called 'the green revolution,' because their use was linked to 
increased yields. However, this was quantity at the cost of continu- 
ally decreasing quality, profit at the expense of life (see Chapter 5). 
Artificial fertilizers are stimulants to growth and act like narcotics 
on which the soil becomes reliant. The soil, now dependent on the 
chemicals — rather like drug addicts who as their physical condi- 
tion worsens, require more and more shots to extend their lives a lit- 
tle further — is also dying. 

In their finely powdered form, artificial fertilizers are moisture 
demanding, robbing the lower ground strata and the young plants 
of moisture. With insufficient moisture, transpiration is reduced 
and the plants' internal temperatures rise, making them more sus- 
ceptible to disease. These fine powders block the vital capillaries, 
which supply naturally derived nutrients, mature water, and con- 
duct rising immaterial energies. This makes it more difficult for the 
plants to absorb rain, resulting in rapid runoff and faster re-evapo- 
ration. Irrigation, with virtually worthless water, now becomes a 
necessity. It is not surprising that the crops grown in such condi- 
tions are neither particularly tasty nor nourishing. 


Excess nitrogen can also introduce another problem — which 
makes ionized substances less available for root development, lead- 
ing to further water shortage for the plants. Nitrates have negatively 
charged ions (anions ") that capture the positively charged ions 
(cations + ) of elements such as magnesium and calcium, removing 
them from the root zone. Magnesium is essential for chlorophyll 

Natures remedy is to bring in parasites (the 'Health Police') to 
remove the diseased organisms, requiring the application of pesti- 
cides and fungicides. After passing on a pesticide-treated crop to 
the consumer, the ground is fumigated with poisonous gases 
injected through plastic sheets, to eradicate these supposedly per- 
nicious pests. Everything dies — earthworms, micro-organisms 
and beneficial bacteria alike. A diverse biosystem gives way to a life- 
less desert. The green revolution was justified as a way of feeding 
the world, just as is biotechnology today. The holistic biologist Mae- 
Wan Ho gives many examples of how sustainable organic agricul- 
ture can be more productive than chemical farming, which is both 
unsustainable and destructive of life. 4 


17. Organic Cultivation 

Biological agriculture 

The health of the topsoil is the most important factor in sustainable 
agriculture. Topsoil is created by decayed vegetable matter, and can 
vary in depth from a few centimetres to several metres. Forests cre- 
ated the deep soils of the world over millennia, and many of these 
have shrunk by as much as 80% in the last two hundred years 
through our disastrous agricultural practices. 

Under natural conditions the friable soil is populated with an 
abundance of earthworms and other creatures and is usually 
capped with a layer of humus, formed of decomposing leaves and 
other vegetable matter, and colonized by a profusion of microbial 
and creepy-crawly life. This rich mixture of life forms makes up a 
processing factory essential to soil health and fertility, and every- 
thing should be done to help it flourish. 

Soil remineralization 

In 1894 an agricultural chemist and contemporary of Justus von 
Liebig, Julius Hensel, published Bread from Stone, a valuable book 
describing the beneficial effects of fertilizing with rock dust, a by- 
product of road metal quarries. His book, posing a significant threat 
to this new chemical fertilizer industry, quickly disappeared, 
bought up and killed off by those who felt challenged by it. 

Ideally ground in a cold process that retains its inherent ener- 
gies, this rock dust in composed of finely ground, mainly igneous 
rocks (such as granite, basalt, etc.) with a broad mineral spectrum. 
Because of its great range of minerals, trace elements and salts, 
when spread on the ground, it encourages a wealth of different 

There has been limited use of rock dust in Switzerland for 150 
years. However, its reintroduction has been encouraged by John 
Hamaker and Don Weaver who in 1975 brought out The Survival of 
Civilization. 1 They describe how important are mineral and trace 
elements to plant growth and quality, but also that trace elements 


are a vital moderator of climatic extremes. They also tell how John 
Hamaker was able to increase the depth of the topsoil at his Michi- 
gan home, from about 10cm (4in) to about 1.2m (4ft) over a period 
of 10 years. 

More recently in Western Australia, an experiment by Barry Old- 
field for the 'Men of the Trees' showed a remarkable increase in the 
growth and health of seedlings planted with rock dust compared 
with those without. Rock dust is easily available as a by-product of 
road metal quarries. 

An initial application of very fine rock dust will quickly attract 
micro-organisms, but a mixture of small and large grains will allow 
a slow release over a longer period. Rock dust has been shown to be 
a buffer against nitrate, sulphur dioxide and nitroxide, and it 
absorbs and fixes the negative ions while saving the positive ions 
for the plants' use. Normally rock dust is applied about every five 
years, the quantity depending on soil deficiency, although it is 
always beneficial. 2 

It is thought that the remarkable longevity (up to 140 years) and 
health of the Hunza people of Northern Pakistan is as much due to 
the mineral-rich glacial water, as to the clean mountain air. Callum 
Coats tells of his neighbours in Queensland who fertilized their fruit 
trees from a bucket of rock dust. Their dogs, who would eagerly 
drink rainwater from this bucket, while leaving their usual water 
bowls full, clearly knew what was best for them. 

Organic farming 

Organic farming normally uses manure (generally cow's), farmyard 
slurry and composted vegetable matter to increase the soil's fertil- 
ity. The introduction of chemical fertilizers in the nineteenth cen- 
tury was popular and soon supplanted the traditional organic 
method, because it was much less labour intensive, and appeared to 
give higher crop yields. A few farmers retained the traditional meth- 
ods and, as the evidence has built up of the pollution of the water 
table and rivers by these chemicals, there has been a renaissance of 
organic farming in the last fifty years. 

The sustainability of organic farming derives from the recycling 
of organic material to maintain its fertility, just as in a natural for- 
est. Modern organic composting tends to use green vegetable mat- 
ter rather than dried, interleaved with layers of earth. Significant 


heat is generated in the pile in this way. Though the compost may Fig 17 L Xhe eg g-shaped compost heap, 
seem to be of good quality, Viktor Schauberger believed that as the 
heat discourages earthworms, it will not be of the best quality. His 
preference is a cold process that produces a higher content of pro- 
tein and other immaterial, fructigenic energies. He also believed it 
important to protect the compost from element-hungry juvenile 
rainwater that will tend to leach out some of the nutrients. 

Although shown here on a small scale, the same principle can be 
applied to larger compost heaps. Schauberger preferred an egg- 
shaped compost heap built up under a large fruit-tree with a broad 
canopy as shown in Fig. 17.1. 

A hollow is dug out of the ground round the base of the tree whose 
trunk is then wrapped loosely with several layers of newspaper, which 


not only protect the tree but, once decomposed, provide an air duct 
for ventilation. Into the hollow is placed a 20cm thick layer of Sun- 
dried leafmould and vegetable matter. This is covered with an equally 
thick mixture of earth, river gravel and fine sand. This is similar to 
remineralization, just described. A small amount of copper and zinc 
filings is added to this mixture (see p. 232). 

To stop the compost heap getting wet, it is then temporarily cov- 
ered with clay or some other waterproof material. Insects, earth- 
worms, and micro-organisms are quickly attracted into the heap 
because it is a cool process. Helped by the diffused oxygen, nitrogen 
and other trace gases penetrating the newspaper round the trunk 
and the layer of earth and sand, they begin to break down the 

The heap is built up into the stable shape of the egg shown in 
Fig. 17.1, as more vegetable refuse becomes available. To protect the 
cold decomposition from being spoiled by rain, the finished heap 
is then coated with a layer of clay. Any rain will run down the near 
vertical surfaces. 

The earthworms and microbes will now have multiplied in their 
thousands through the whole pile and aerated it. As they will begin 
to die off, their bodies add nutritive value to the compost heap, hav- 
ing by now infiltrated the whole of the compost heap. As the autumn 
Sun loses its strength, the ground starts to cool and a significant 
positive temperature gradient is established between the ground 
and the air. The compost heap is now ready; it is taken down to 
ground level, and what remains in the cavity is left to nourish the 

The material is spread evenly over adjacent fields towards 
evening, for under the positive temperature gradient — most pow- 
erful at this time — rain or dew will carry the nutrients into the 
ground. This method produces a far richer and higher-quality nat- 
ural fertilizer, which not only maintains, but actually increases fer- 
tility. The host tree also benefits and will produce a copious crop of 
healthy, tasty and blight-free fruit. Such compost heaps may be 
built under different trees each year, eventually fertilizing all the 
fruit trees. If there are no suitable trees, similarly constructed 
heaps can be built as dome-like humps or barrel-shaped clumps, 
protected from rainwater and insulated from the heating effect of 
the Sun. 


Biodynamic farming 

Dr Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), a teacher and philosopher born in 
Austria, and founder of the Anthroposophical Movement, devised 
biodynamic farming. According to anthroposophy the human being 
is the highest expression on Earth of the Divine, incarnating all cre- 
ative power and patterns of physical manifestation. The world is 
studied through the inner and outer natures of humanity. Its 
approach to farming is very similar to Schauberger's, the assumption 
that energy is the primary cause, and growth the secondary effect. 
While it has been mooted that Rudolf Steiner and Viktor 
Schauberger did have fairly lengthy discussions, if such was the case, 
it is not clear how much either might have influenced the other. 

Biodynamic farming recognizes the very ancient practice of 
burying cow's horns filled with cow dung deep underground in the 
autumn. At this time the active Earth's energies are drawn into the 
horn because of its vortex shape, transforming its contents into 
powerful fructigenic energies by the cold process of fermentation 
encouraged by the low temperatures. The cow horns are disinterred 
in early spring, their contents having been converted into a sweet 
smelling, highly active substance. 

This empowered material is the basis of the natural fertilizer 
known as '500 mix.' Since 1947, it has been increasing widely used, 
and over a 1 1/4 million acres are fertilized in Australia using this sys- 
tem. The land where it has been spread, when seen from the air, 
stands out clearly from neighbouring farms, due to the much 
greener pasture. Some cows from farms bordering Alex Podolin- 
sky's did not eat for two or three days after they had broken into the 
biodynamic farm, so high was the quality of the grass they had con- 
sumed. 3 

The '500' mix fertilizer is produced according to an ancient 
Alpine tradition which Schauberger himself once observed being 
practised by an old mountain farmer who achieved amazing 
results from his fertilizer. The principle is like that of homeopathy. 
When a homeopathic medicine is made, the original remedy is 
stirred and shaken between the dilutions, which increase its 
potency. With the fertilizer a small quantity of the converted cow 
dung is added to water and stirred first in one direction and then 
in the other, so as to create vortices rotating about the vertical axis 


Fig. 17.2. Motor-driven mixing device 
with golf club-shaped impeller. 

of the mixing vessel. A left-hand vortex builds up the positive 
energy and the right hand vortex creates a negative energy that 
draws in the inseminating 2 . The alternating energy charge builds 
up the inherent energies of the 500 mix. This recalls the alternat- 
ing left and right hand bends in a river building up its energy in a 
longitudinal vortex (see p. 143). 

This method of progressively raising energy is analogous to the 
Japanese art of sword making. The base material is heated in the 
furnace, and then beaten out or 'structured' with a hammer as it 
cools. It is then further heated to incandescence, folded over on 
itself, fused together and beaten out again. Each time the heating 
partially breaks down the structuring created by the beating. But 
with repetition, the structure is cumulatively enhanced and the level 
of chaos is diminished, ultimately producing a razor-sharp blade 
whose structure is both laminar and flexible. In a similar way, as the 
vortices are alternately formed and destroyed in making the fertil- 
izer, the level of energy rises and the degree of chaos decreases until, 
after about an hour, the product is ready for use. This is sprayed on 
the fields towards evening within two to three hours of preparation 
and before the accumulated energies have dispersed. 

In order to produce larger quantities of the 500 mix, motor 
driven paddles are used in cylindrical vessels. Viktor's son, Walter, 
found that the energies build up more strongly in an egg-shaped 
vessel, and he devised one (Fig. 17.2) using a simple blade like a 
gold golf club head as an impeller to infuse carbon-dioxide perma- 
nently into water under a partial vacuum. 4 

The farmer that Viktor watched also sang into the brew, rising 
tones as he stirred to the left and falling tones as he stirred to the 
right, adding crumbling pieces of aluminium-bearing clay into the 
water. The chanting builds up creative energy in the water's mem- 
ory (see p. 108, homeopathy). After about an hour the mixture was 
ready to be spread over the fields. The following morning he did this 
by dipping a branch with small leaves into the barrel and then flick- 
ing the energized clay-water emulsion over the ground, rather like 
holy water is sprinkled with palm fronds on Palm Sunday. 

Viktor Schauberger's methods of producing natural fertilizer 
were similar to Rudolf Steiner's biodynamics, but they did not 
depend on the thousands of cow horns used by Podolinsky, which 
are available now only because of the high demand for beef. Ulti- 
mately such a supply is non-sustainable, when you consider that in 


Costa Rica, a recent study showed that for every beef carcass 
exported, 2 1/2 tonnes of top soil were irretrievably lost through ero- 
sion. For a year's food, a meat eater requires the produce from about 

I. 6 acres, a vegetarian only 0.66 acres. (These are good arguments 
for switching to vegetarianism). 

The role of subtle energies in nature 

As you may remember from our discussion of energies in Chapter 
2, though our physical existence and ordinary level of conscious- 
ness are based in a material third dimensional world, our psyche 
and our spiritual nature can be influenced by energies from the 
fourth to the sixth dimensions. Some people more than others are 
attuned to these immaterial energies. Viktor Schauberger undoubt- 
edly was, as were other visionaries, such as Goethe and Rudolf 

Although Earth is called a third dimensional environment, all 
life and creativity is fundamentally dependent on fourth and fifth 
dimensional energies. Viktor Schauberger identified these aspects 
of the Sun's fertilizing role (the spiritual driving force of life), 
according to their different purposes in Nature (as described in 
Chapter 2). Dynagens generate higher intrinsic energy; fructigens 
are those subtle energies that produce greater fertility; qualigens 
create greater quality. Schauberger believed that there was no more 
powerful way to stimulate high quality growth than by seeding 
these dynamic energies directly on the soil. As in any area of creativ- 
ity, the balance of the positive and negative, the male and female 
energies are all-important. 

The Tibetans, who had a practice to bury so-called 'treasure 
vases,' knew long ago about the seeding of the soil with immaterial 
energies in certain propitious places. Filled with precious stones 
and metals, these containers were believed to discharge beneficial 
energies that enhanced and protected the environment. The 
Tibetans believed that gold and other precious metals were best left 
undisturbed in the ground as they help to balance the earth energy, 
just as the Hopis and the Australian aborigines regard places with 
uranium as sacred. 

Schauberger's vision was to create a greater abundance of cre- 
ative animating energy, of fertility and rising quality. To do this 
involved a process that sounds more alchemical than scientific. It 


Fig. 17.3. Egg-shaped fermentation 

required the mixture of small amounts of the male elements of sil- 
ver, zinc and silicon, with the female gold, copper and limestone, 
brought together in a special container. For the more precious ele- 
ments, gold and silver, only a few particles will easily raise the qual- 
ity of the resulting fermentation. The copper and zinc are in the 
form of filings or powder. 

As a container he used an egg-shaped fermentation chamber 
scooped out of the ground about 2m (6 l/2ft) deep, and lined with 
aluminium-bearing clay (Fig. 17.3). A wide range of organic mate- 
rial, kitchen refuse, animal and human waste, as fresh as possible, 
is now added, up to one third of the volume. The remaining space is 
then filled with well-oxygenated, juvenile rainwater or surface 
water, well exposed to the Sun. The top opening is now sealed, so 
that energies emanating from the interaction of cosmic and 
geospheric forces will not be dissipated. A bronze rod with a bio- 
metal (silver plated copper) vortex-inducer driven by a small motor 
is inserted through a hole in the cover. 



The liquid is stirred in a clockwise (what Schauberger called 'plan- 
etary') motion: 

'Planetary motion' produces an inward spiralling of the liq- 
uid, reducing the outward pressure on the peripheral wall- 
surfaces, while cooling and densifying. This planetary 
motion, or vortex, involves the natural, animating, cen- 
tripetalizing acceleration of mass, which initiates higher- 
grade fermentation processes of an invigorating nature in the 
bipolar mixture of basic elements. The end-product is bio- 
magnetism, a reproductive, regenerative and upwardly evolv- 
ing form of energy. 5 

As well as the biomagnetism there is produced a cooling towards 
the pivotal +4°C (39°F) anomaly point due to the vortical move- 
ment in the liquid. The egg-shape ensures that the particles are 
thoroughly mixed and reduced to the smallest possible particles, 
homeopathic in their effect, which Viktor notes: 

In terms of homeopathic principles and attempts to produce 
super-dilutions in order to still the 'specific' hunger of the 
plants, the more dilute the fertilizing agent, the more it 
approximates the character of the above ethericities, thus 
facilitating further interactions that in turn result in 
increased growth. 6 

There is a mystical dimension to this process, which is like mixing 
elements of Earth and Heaven. This produces a highly active negative 
or fructigenic potency, which combines with the water, making it 
crystal clear. It is also free of unattractive odours and indeed is sweet- 
smelling, like Podolinsky's '500 mix.' Viktor Schauberger claimed the 
fertilizer is so powerful, that two such fermentation chambers would 
be sufficient to permeate the soil over several square kilometres with 
fertile substances that will encourage germination. 7 

Viktor compares this process to winemaking, where sweet and 
turbid grape-juice matures into clear, relatively dry wine in a cool cel- 
lar. The maturation of good wine, however, may take a year or more, 
whereas this extraordinarily procreative liquid takes only two to three 
nights to prepare, weather conditions permitting. When broadcast 
over the fields in the evening, it absorbs the predominantly positive 


atmospheric energies ready for fertilization by the Sun's energies the 
following day. As Schauberger observes: 'Thus, apart from a purely 
sexual process of procreation, a process of higher genesis here con- 
fronts us with the ability to endow quantity with quality.' 8 

Cold fire 

Viktor Schauberger has described an eerie experience he had with 
dynagen ethericities, which in this case produced what is known as 
'cold fire,' a strange bioelectric phenomenon: 

Over thirty years ago, walking in a virgin, Alpine forest, I 
came upon a flatfish mound covered with vivid green grass 
and a profusion of bright flowers that did not seem to belong 
in those surroundings. It was close to a gamecock's courtship 
display ground, so I decided to spend the night in this remote 
spot, in order to witness these fine birds display at daybreak. 
Towards midnight, I was roused by a bluish-white flame curl- 
ing up from the mound and jumped up to extinguish this 
incipient forest fire. 

In the meantime the flame had grown a metre high and 
took on an egg-shaped form, similar to those that now and 
again issue from rock fissures and, like shining dewdrops, 
stand on the point of a rock. Many years ago a chief forester 
from Vienna, Walter Hackel, photographed just such a strange 
light over a metre in height. A copy of the photograph was 
unfortunately lost at the end of the war, or rather was stolen 
by looters of my apartment. 

However, at that time I knew nothing of these things and 
so I backed away in horror, as I stood in this pitch-black 
darkness before an ever more powerfully flaring and heatless 
flame, which threw a pale glimmer into the surroundings. At 
first, like a man possessed, with my heavy mountain staff, I 
hit at the place from where tongue after tongue of this 
mysterious egg-light sprang up. When I noticed that this shaft 
of light sprang from the rock at only one point, I ceased to 
flail away at the supposed forest fire and loosened the 
surrounding soil. This, however, had no effect. 

Then I held my hand in this egg-light and instead of 
feeling the anticipated heat, experienced an icy coldness and 


saw the bones standing out on my hand. An icy chill ran 
down my back. I returned to the tree where my gun lay, 
released the safety catch and sat down in my former bivouac, 
waiting to see what else would happen. After about two hours 
the sky at last began to grey. A few hundred metres away the 
gamecock began his courtship, the actual reason for my early 
visit. I didn't move from my position, watching how this 
uncanny glow slowly extinguished, and suddenly the whole 
specter was over. 

When at last daylight came, I returned again to the source 
of the flame and on every tip of the lush green leaves I saw 
oversize dewdrops, again in egg-shaped form, standing 
motionless like glittering candle flames. As the first rays of 
the Sun pierced the tangle of leaves, the grass-tips bent under 
the weight of the ur-water, which visibly grew as the Sun's 
heat increased. 9 One by one, the now finished dewdrops fell 

Now I began to dig into the hillock with the tip of my 
mountain staff and underneath a peculiarly smelling layer of 
humus, I felt a resistance, which after further digging, turned 
out to be the almost undecomposed corpse of a chamois 
buck, which had a clearly distinguishable bullet entry hole 
above the left foreleg. There was, however, no exit hole. 
According to the time of year, it could have been shot only by 
poachers, since the hunting season was long past. It was only 
later that it became clear to me that the buck must already 
have lain underneath this mound for a longish period, 
because it was covered by a thick layer of humus upon which 
vegetation had apparently sprouted. On even closer 
inspection, I found a sort of mass grave before me. 

The old hunters used to insist that chamois (as also 
happens with elephants) seek out special places to die where 
slow decomposition rather than putrefaction takes place. Sick 
wild animals are attracted to such places which remain 
equally warm or cold in winter and in summer, seeking either 
a cure or a painless death. Expressed scientifically, constant 
anomaly states prevail, which permit decay-free 
decomposition. This is why, as a particularly sly old forester 
explained, the high clergymen had themselves buried in a 
constantly cool church crypt, or why the more common 


priests at least had a little roof built over their graves along 
the cemetery wall at the eastern side in order to protect them 
from rainwater. I realized later that, because of its free oxygen 
content, which activates decomposive forces, rainwater 
actually promotes decay or rusting. 10 

Fertilizing energies 

Schauberger's buried fermentation chamber is sited so as to be a 
meeting place for the male seminal energies of the Sun (acting per- 
pendicularly to the Earth) and the female fertilizing energies of the 
Earth (acting horizontally at or near the Earth surface). The 
residues or fallout of their combination result in physical growth. As 
Schauberger describes: 

Having been created out of the most thoroughly rotted elements 
of former life, these emanations are the most natural fertilizers, 
which have metamorphosed their erstwhile spatiality (spatial 
volume) to such a degree, that they can only manifest them- 
selves as highly dosed (concentrated) energetic matter. 11 

This is what sustainability is all about. Matter being the energetic 
waste products of higher (fourth or fifth dimensional) energies cre- 
ated through heat and light, their reconversion into energies make 
them the best possible natural fertilizers. There is virtually no limit 
to the charge that can be built up with these energies, as they are 

The fertilizing energies (which may be a combination of dyna- 
gens, fructigens and qualigens) enter the plant itself through the 
root protoplasms, the little sacs or vesicles of proto-water or amni- 
otic fluid attached to the root-tip. Like dew, another form of proto- 
water formed on the tips of blades of grass during the night and 
early morning, these vesicles, too, collapse if exposed to light and 
heat. This is why the greatest care must be taken when replanting 
small seedlings or saplings, which should be done only at night in 
order to keep injury to a minimum. 

Absolutely essential to the plant, these delicate root protoplasms 
convert the nutritive energies and the minerals into a form that it 
can absorb. Viktor Schauberger's sketch (Fig. 17.4) illustrates the 
process, which he describes: 


No plant is actually nourished by dissolved matter, but rather 
by the nutritive entities of geospheric origin, 'ascended' in a 
fourth dimensional state. These diffuse ethericities can enter 
the sap-stream only through the root protoplasms, where they 
are fertilized by diffuse oxygenic ethericities. The higher out- 
birth of this emulsion (ur-procreation) is an ethericity that 
belongs to fifth dimension. These concentrations of matter- 
energy emit negative, hyper-charged emanations in all direc- 
tions and bind the positively-charged ethericities entering 
through the skin or the bark. Some of this emulsion solidifies 
and whatever is subsequently manifested, is what we call 


With these natural methods of fertilization there is therefore much 
that we can do to promote healthy and sustainable growth in agri- 
culture. With this technology we have the ability to restore the soil, 
our only source of wholesome food, to its former state of high pro- 
ductivity and fertility, and even to increase it. These means are not 
only far cheaper than the use of harmful artificial fertilizers and 
noxious pesticides, but they increase both the quantity and quality 
of food. Schauberger held that conversion of agricultural practice to 
sustainable organic fertility, forestry to biodiversity and water 
resources management to take into account Nature's more subtle 
processes, would halt the present deterioration both of the environ- 
ment and of the human condition. 

First we have to understand how Nature works, and accept her 
laws. Schauberger's life was devoted to this challenge. Let us hope 
that his work will empower people to seek this goal, and to encour- 
age the changes needed to change our materialistically oriented 
society. In Schauberger's own words: 

inflow of positive 

Fig. 17.4. 



A free people can grow only from a free Earth. Any people that 
violate Mother-Earth have no right to a homeland, because 
high-quality races cannot survive in soils destroyed by specula- 
tion, i.e. because they are divorced of all connection with the 
Earth. Human societies without roots perish. They have to expe- 
rience the path of decay until, like unsuitable fertilizers, they 
give up their stubborn wills and only then will they be allowed 
to start again and re-enter the mighty course of evolution. 13 


The Energy Revolution 

18. Harnessing Implosion Power 

'In the whole machine there is no straight line and no circle.' 
(Viktor Schauberger's comment to a visitor to his workshop in 1936.) 

Arthur C. Clarke, the futurologist, recently commented that we were 
on the verge of a breakthrough in how we access energy. This was 
before the giant aerospace company Boeing of Seattle announced 
new research with a practical anti-gravity device developed by the 
Russian scientist Evgeny Podkletnov. 

The obvious area that would be affected is transport; space 
travel would suddenly become easy. Aircraft could carry us swiftly 
and silently without polluting the atmosphere. Surface transport 
could become swift and cheap. Building methods could be trans- 
formed; it could even help with advances in medicine. 

But the principal gain would be virtually free, unpolluting 
energy, which could be produced even in our own homes. Gone 
would be the necessity to be dependent on an expensive national 
grid. These changes might not happen smoothly, because political 
and economic power revolves around the carbon industry, princi- 
pally oil, and the utilities. Are these power brokers going to give up 
their control without a fight? Additionally our present, morally 
bankrupt societies seem always to give the military industries first 
choice of employing new technologies. 

Because Podkletnov's invention was inspired by Viktor 
Schauberger's research, it might be interesting to follow how his dis- 
covery of anti-gravity came from devices he had developed through 
observing Nature. 

The beginnings of implosion research 

During the 1920s, Viktor Schauberger had made a bit of money (as 
well as a reputation) by building his revolutionary log flumes. This 
enabled him to design a prototype power plant to extract energy 
directly from air and water, based on the powerful energies he had 
identified in Nature. The first experiments he undertook with a 
Viennese engineer, Dr Winter, in 1931-32 were inconclusive, and 


made him realize he had to undertake much more precise observa- 
tions of how the trout actually transmutes the energies of the 
stream into such powerful forward motion. 

The principle of the trout turbine was that air and water should 
be directed through spiral shaped pipes with a specially shaped 
cross section that moved the substance in such a way as to trans- 
form it into a living' state. After a certain number of revolutions the 
air or water would be induced through a specific corkscrew motion 
into a highly energized state, from which the energy could be 
released. What Schauberger was producing was a reaction at the 
atomic level. However, instead of violently compressing atoms in 
hydrogen gas to create helium and an energy release, he was able to 
twist all the elements together in the quiet, but powerful, way that 
happens in Nature; this was more comparable to atomic 'fusion.' 

As we have seen, one of Viktor's brilliant insights into Nature's 
methods was the concept of reciprocity. Many of Nature's processes 
depend on the alternating of complementary, but opposite, forms of 
energy, e.g heat and cold, gravity and levitation, electricity and 
magnetism, centrifugence and centripetence, both aspects of which 
combine to create a wholeness through their synthesizing, recipro- 
cal action. Thus he found that alternating pressure and suction 
could be employed in this way on the axis of the machine to produce 
a powerful propulsive effect. 

This 'biotechnical' fusion created what Schauberger called 'dia- 
magnetic' or higher quality substances which had levitational ten- 
dencies that were the principal feature of the machines he designed 
at the beginning of the war. The first, built by a Berlin company in 
1940, disappointed him because of the poor workmanship. So he 
moved assembly closer to home, to a Viennese plant where, in an 
unscheduled test, his first flying saucer-shaped prototype broke 
away from its anchoring bolts and smashed a hole in the factory's 
ceiling. The infuriated owner never forgave Schauberger and was 
uncooperative about testing a second model. 

The German culture has a reputation for being open to new 
ideas. Indeed, a German industrialist who had heard about 
Schauberger's strange inventions recommended him to Hitler in 
1934. Viktor made a strong impression on the Fuhrer who, after the 
interview, requested all assistance be given to his research in fuel- 
less energy production. The scientific establishment resented this 
upstart; indeed, the father of quantum physics, Max Planck, who 


had been present at the interview, when asked his opinion of 
Schauberger's theories, retorted: 'Science has nothing to do with 

Professor Ernst Heinkel, who developed the innovative aircraft 
that bore his name, also heard about Schauberger's revolutionary 
power source, and stealing his confidential patent application, 
attempted in 1938 to incorporate it into his new jet aircraft, the 
under-performing HE 280. Heinkel persuaded the patents office to 
restrict Schauberger's technology to water purification projects, so 
that he would be free to develop Schauberger's innovations in his 
aircraft research. However, it dawned on him that the conventional 
aircraft frame was totally inappropriate for Schauberger's suction 
engine. The development in 1940 of Schreiver's 'Flying Top' in 
Heinkel's Rostock factory suggests that he had more success when 
the power generator was transferred to the new model of prototype 
flying saucer. 

In 1943, the Schreiver saucer and its subsequent developments 
were moved to a secret location in Czechoslovakia to which 
Schauberger was from time to time seconded. Word of this new 'air- 
craft' reached Himmler's ears; he was drawn more to unconven- 
tional science as a source of new weapons development. Viktor's 
activities were at that time highly secret, moving from one project 
to another, but he was apparently not at that time given responsibil- 
ity for research and development. However, in 1943 Himmler 
entrusted to the SS the role for developing German secret weapons. 

The SS established production facilities for these new secret 
weapons in giant cave complexes in Poland and Czechoslovakia, 
safe from Allied bombs, using prisoners of war as labour. Had these 
underground facilities been set up earlier in the war, its outcome 
might have been different. The level of secrecy was extremely high; 
so much, indeed, that at one crucial location at the end of the war, 
the SS lined up 62 of the scientists and laboratory technicians, and 
shot them, to save the secrets of that complex 'free energy' atomic 
installation falling into the hands of the approaching Soviet troops. 1 

The SS decided in 1944 that Schauberger's machines were ready 
for production. They drafted him and ordered him, under pain of 
death, to employ prisoner engineers from the Mauthausen concen- 
tration camp near Linz to develop five projects. In addition to the 
high priority flying saucer programme, there was a water purifier, 
a high voltage generator, an air conditioner and a machine to 


biosynthesize hydrogen from water. However, because of the suc- 
cess of the Allies' bombing, Schauberger moved his operations to 
Leonstein in Upper Austria, and the improved Repulsine was 
finally ready for testing the day the Americans arrived; the SS 
guards had disappeared the day before. 

A British engineer, John Frost, who emigrated to Canada shortly 
after the war, developed a flying saucer project called the Avrocar at 
a Canadian aerospace plant, funded largely by US capital. It was to 
take off and land vertically, and to fly at high altitudes at 1,500 mph. 
They were having trouble with its stability and, realizing that the 
power plant was inadequate, approached Viktor Schauberger with a 
generous offer to buy his propulsion system. Viktor declined, 
because they refused to promise that his invention would be used 
only for the good of humanity. Schauberger reported that he had a 
second offer of $3.5 million from an American company, which he 
refused for the same reason. This was not long before the Ger- 
chsheimer consortium contacted him. 

The American consortium 

Karl Gerchsheimer, initiator of the American consortium that tried 
(see p. 13) to extract Schauberger's secrets in 1958, as head of all 
civilian administration and logistics had been the most powerful 
non-military presence in the U.S. zone of Germany from 1945 to 
1950. He was a Bavarian who thought he understood where 
Schauberger was coming from — he had read some of Viktor's 
papers, and felt he shared the same love of the mountains and their 
pure water. 

Gerchsheimer formulated a plan with industrialist and financier 
Robert Donner to bring Viktor and his son to the U.S. to help 
develop radical power technology, although by that time 
Schauberger was in very poor health. In May 1958 the group assem- 
bled in a secret hideaway in the Texas desert. There were many 
delays and serious communication problems. Gerchsheimer and 
Donner had a disagreement with Donner's financial adviser, Nor- 
man Dodd, their production director, whom they fired in con- 
tentious circumstances. Viktor eventually became convinced, 
probably mistakenly, that the consortium was part of a U.S. govern- 
ment plan to make a very powerful atomic bomb by developing his 
research trail, and refused to cooperate. 


Basically, they had different agendas; the Schaubergers, Ger- 
chsheimer and Dodd all gave varying accounts of what actually 
happened. Gerchsheimer complained that Viktor's explanations of 
his theories were unintelligible and suspected that they were flawed. 
He gradually came to the conclusion that Viktor would not be able 
to deliver what they wanted. Viktor, for his part, rebelled when it was 
finally made clear that he must stay for eight years, whereupon he 
effectively refused to engage in any further communication. 

Only after he and his son had agreed to sign a new contract 
(which was not translated into German for them), effectively con- 
signing to the consortium all rights to his documents, designs and 
models and to any future ideas and inventions, was Viktor allowed 
to return to his beloved Austria, a broken man. 

A new kind of aircraft? 

The Wright Brothers' plane a century ago had wings, a tail fin and 
rudders. All our commercial jet aircraft today are built on the same 
principles, but are far less fuel efficient, requiring hundreds of times 
the energy to push through the atmosphere. More and more power 
is expended to counter both the air resistance and the pull of grav- 
ity, at quite astronomical costs in terms of materials and develop- 
ment. It was to reduce the force of gravity that some of the large 
aerospace companies in the U.S.A. were undertaking research in the 
early 1950s. One researcher, Townsend T. Brown had designed a 
saucer-shaped craft whose weight was significantly reduced by 
energizing the skins with massive amounts of electricity and which 
happened also to make the craft invisible to radar. 

Conventional scientific theory states that certain laws are invio- 
lable, like the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Einstein's Theory of 
Relativity or the Law of Gravity. We learn this at school, and anyone 
who claims otherwise is treated with suspicion or derision. 
Researchers now working at the frontiers of science, such as in 
quantum physics, are discovering that these laws apply only under 
conventional physical conditions, though this is not yet widely 

The discovery that the force of gravity can be reduced or even 
cancelled has profound implications for humanity. It is as though 
we can add another dimension to our world, one that had always 
been present, though not in our awareness. For many people 


(especially conventional scientists who like events to be pre- 
dictable) this may be a scary and unwelcome development. 

The appeal of anti-gravity is powerful. Passengers travelling in a 
plane that was able to cancel out gravity would not experience any 
discomfort, no matter how fast it accelerated or changed course. It 
would revolutionize space exploration. Put to work in other fields, 
the absence of gravity would solve the problems of power transmis- 
sion from engine to wheels, would facilitate fuel-less heating for 
homes and industry, and have many other uses, even in medicine. 
Predictions were being made in 1956 that a new kind of aircraft 
using anti-gravity would be developed within five years. All that was 
required to usher in an era of efficient, economical, clean and quiet, 
fuel-less propulsion, of free energy technology for industry and the 
home — was investment and a little encouragement from the U.S. 

It never happened; or did it? All discussion about anti-gravity 
ceased in the U.S. in 1957. But that was the time when the research 
and development arm of the military-industrial complex went 
underground, or'black' as the popular idiom has it, becoming com- 
pletely unaccountable to government, with astronomical procure- 
ment budgets carefully hidden from the scrutiny of the legislative 
branch. This was justified for reasons of national security during 
the Cold War, and so it has remained ever since. In fact, America was 
following the example of Nazi Germany, where the initiative for 
developing new weapons was taken from the armaments industry 
in 1943 and entrusted to a very secret (mostly literally under- 
ground) programme run by the SS. 

There have been various reports of secret aircraft being devel- 
oped by the black side of the U.S. aeronautical industry. The most 
noteworthy was the triangular-shaped Northrop B-2 Stealth 
Bomber which has an electrogravic drive system; it had followed the 
Lockheed Stealth Fighter (the term 'stealth' signifying their invisi- 
bility to radar). Some believe that the B-2 has a system to reduce 
gravity; what is more accepted is that it envelops itself in a shield of 
static electricity which both acts like a cloaking device and reduces 
its air resistance. Since the B-2 went operational in 1993, twenty 
have been built at a cost of $20 billion each. 2 

It has been suggested that test flights of experimental flying 
saucer aircraft may account for UFO sightings. While this is certainly 
possible, evidence is still lacking of the significant development of a 


successful U.S. saucer programme. The evidence, however, for visita- 
tions by craft from extraterrestrial sources, and for the US govern- 
ment's undercover research with recovered alien craft is rather more 
tangible, despite continuing and complex official denials and disin- 
formation campaigns. 3 

Nick Cook, in his book The Hunt for Zero Point, comes to the con- 
clusion that the giant aerospace industry is essentially conservative. 
They could not take on the kind of anti-gravity research pioneered 
by T.T. Brown in the late 1940s because they would have lost their 
credibility within the science of aeronautics, and the industry 
would have suffered. 

What I have learned is that there are two kinds of science. 
The stuff they teach you in college, and all the weird things 
they don't. This knowledge is dangerous. It's change with a 
capital C and it's not easy to get your head around. The aero- 
space and defense industry says it likes people who think out 
of the box, because they're the guys who give us the break- 
throughs ... radar, the bomb, stealth and all that; but think 
this far out and they look at you like you're crazy. They might 
even put you away. 4 

The other, often overlooked, reason for conservatism in technol- 
ogy is the extent to which political and economic power is cen- 
tred partly in transportation, but especially in the carbon fuel 
industry. As long as there is plenty of oil to be pumped, why risk 
destabilization of this power by investigating virtually free 
energy sources that would inevitably bring with it much more 
freedom for countless millions of people who are currently 
dependent on the expensive central distribution of oil products 
and electricity? 

Schauberger's search for free energy 

However, in July 2002 Jane's Defence Weekly announced that they 
had seen secret research papers from Boeing, the aerospace giants, 
confirming positive development of a Russian device — which 
comprises rapidly spinning superconducting ceramic discs sus- 
pended in the magnetic field of three electric coils enclosed in a low 
temperature vessel. 


The man behind this research is Dr Evgeny Podkletnov, a Russian 
scientist then working in Finland. When he first published details of 
his anti-gravity device in 1996, he was ostracized by his colleagues 
and then fired by his university, for the Law of Gravity is inviolable! 
He subsequently admitted that his father, a leading authority in 
hydro-engineering, had acquired original Schauberger papers at the 
end of the war. 

The most creative pioneers of new scientific vision are essen- 
tially practical people who have an urgent need to see their ideas 
put into practice. Viktor Schauberger was no exception. Realizing 
that the machines our technology has developed are not only very 
inefficient, but that they are also largely responsible for the destruc- 
tion of our environment, he set about designing appliances which 
used Nature's creative methods, but which were capable also of pro- 
ducing vastly more power at little cost. 

Schauberger abandoned the Euclidean model of straight line 
and circle. All the functional surfaces of his machines employ the 
spirals, sinuosity and curves of the open forms of non-Euclidean 
geometry that are found in Nature. The egg-shapes and spirals that 
he employed produced life-affirming energies that stabilize, 
enhance and rehabilitate natural processes. 

When Schauberger designed his prototype machines it was 
extremely difficult to perfect complex curvilinear surfaces. Now, 
with computer programmes, it is possible with ease to replicate 
Nature's eggs, spirals and vortices. A design breakthrough to 
designing benevolent systems would be theoretically simple; what 
is lacking is the insight and the imagination. 

During the 1930s and 1940s, he developed a number of proto- 
types: of a machine which produced high quality spring water, a 
domestic air conditioning appliance, and various machines which 
produced prodigious amounts of motive power. All these machines 
worked on much the same principles, and had in common a virtu- 
ally silent and inexpensive operation. All the important elements of 
Nature's repertoire come into their own, such as male and female 
ethericities, creative vortical movement, temperature gradients, 
bioelectricism and biomagnetism. As Schauberger commented: At 
the intersection of two temperature gradients atomic energy is 
released. Whether it is a formative or destructive energy is deter- 
mined in each case by the type of movement and the composition 
of the alloys used to build the motion-producing machine.' 5 


The biological vacuum 

I can generate suctional forces which act indirectly and are entirely 
undetectable. No current of air can be noticed; only an almost imper- 
ceptible cooling, as occurs when air is sucked in strongly with the back 
of the hand held in front of the mouth. It is therefore incorrect to say 
that I have copied the cyclones and typhoons of the tropics. 6 

The mechanical principle of all of Schauberger s machines is that of 
suction, the simplest form of which we experience when we place 
our hand over the plug hole in a bath of deep water; taking it away 
and replacing it illustrates the enormous power of suction. Profes- 
sor Felix Ehrenhaft, who helped Viktor with his calculations, 
worked out that the power of suction, or implosion as it is called in 
energy terms, is 127 times more powerful than explosion. 

Bathtub suction is powered by gravity, which is related to centrifu- 
gence, the complement to centripetence. In a similar way that the air- 
craft jet engine uses the interaction of suction and pressure on a 
common axis, Schauberger used the balance between centrifugence 
and centripetence on a common axis to produce a biological vacuum. 

This is created by spinning the gas or liquid at high speed in a 
vortical manner so that it becomes dense and cool. If water were 
used, every 1°C of cooling would reduce the volume of the gases 
contained in the water by 1/273. However, if air containing an aver- 
age amount of water vapour is used, the amount of compaction of 
air to water is in the ratio of 816 to 1. One litre of water at +4°C 
(39°F) weighs 1kg, compared to one litre of normal air which 
weighs 0.001226kg. This is the basis of implosion energy. 

In 1939 the American airship the Akron was destroyed when its 
helium mysteriously reverted to water, reducing in volume 1800- 
fold in a massive implosion. This immense reduction in volume cre- 
ates a biological vacuum that can be an ideal and environmentally 
harmless source of motive power. Gases are converted into water 
and those contained in the water are further transformed into 
energy in the process of continuous cooling which occurs in the for- 
mation of a biological vacuum. 

Viktor's machines, besides spatially reducing physical matter, 
also converted it into immaterial energies, in reality a translation 
from the third to the fourth or fifth dimensions. Callum Coats writes: 



The egg-shaped whort-pipe profiles shown In 
plan form are taken from the 1953 Brazilian and 
French Patent Nos. 43, 431 & 1,075.576 

direction of rotation 


fluted water 
deflector ring 

Fig. 18.1. Tornado home power generator. Schematic design based on patent applications and other data. 

This higher realm of being is what Theosophical teaching 
refers to as the Taya point,' the point of extreme potency, the 
eye of the needle as it were, through which and from which all 
manifesting energies are propagated. Viktor called this 
process a 'higher inward fall,' noting in his diary of August 14, 

I stand face to face with the apparent 'void,' the 
compression of dematerialization that we are wont to call a 
'vacuum.' I can now see that we are able to create anything we 
wish for ourselves out of this 'nothing.' The agent is water, the 
blood of the Earth and the most universal organism. 7 

Viktor Schauberger demonstrated how to remove matter from the 
physical dimension, and to pack the resulting nonspatial other- 
worldly vacuum with almost unlimited amounts of pure, formative 
energy, the counterpart to the physical substance that had been 
transformed. Simply the appropriate trigger, usually light or heat, 
could unleash this huge potential and source of power. 8 He 
described his aim as follows: 

I must furnish those who would protect or save life with an 
energy source which produces energy so cheaply that nuclear 
fission will not only be economical, but ridiculous. This is the 
task I have set myself in what little time I have left. 9 

Nuclear fusion 

The dichotomy between centrifugal and centripetal technologies is 
never clearer than with nuclear energy. Viktor frequently inveighed 
against the dangers of nuclear fission (explosive), and he came near 
to the unveiling the secrets of nuclear fusion (implosive), the 
Shangri-la of our technical age. The key to it was the extreme bio- 
logical vacuum, achieved most nearly in his 'flying saucer,' 
described later. The process can be described as 'cold fusion.' 

Walter Schauberger, with his physics and mathematical back- 
ground was able to describe the process of conversion of matter into 
'virtual' states in a way that other scientists could understand; in 
this way the approaches of father and son complemented each 
other. Richard St Barbe Baker, the prominent environmentalist and 
founder of 'The Men of the Trees' movement, impressed with the 


potential of the Schauberger physics tried, sadly without success, to 
interest Clement Atlee's UK government in supporting Walter and 
Viktor's implosion research. 

Instead, Baker brought Walter to England in 1950 to lecture to 
and dialogue with top scientists. First, at Oxford, there was a gath- 
ering of physicists, chemists and forestry researchers, who affected 
polite interest, but refrained from comment. However, at Cambridge 
Sir James Chadwick, who with Rutherford had first split the atom, 
was most impressed with Walter, introducing him to other atomic 

A group of top atomic physicists at Birmingham showed lively 
interest in this new physics, and admitted to being inspired. A few 
weeks later Baker was again in Birmingham, and asked the scien- 
tists if they had held a postmortem on Schauberger's presentation. 
'Yes, indeed,' they admitted; they had decided that it was 'unchal- 
lengeable.' 'Then what are you going to do about it?' asked Baker. 
'Nothing,' was their retort. Why not?' 'Because it would mean rewrit- 
ing all the textbooks in the world.' 10 

The repulsator 

Viktor started work on this machine (Fig. 18.2) early in the 1930s. 
It was designed to convert degenerated or distilled water into invig- 
orating fresh water with the qualities of a mountain spring. A 10- 
litre egg-shaped vessel made of copper, with some active surfaces 
silver-plated, was used, insulated to retain the biomagnetic and bio- 
electrical energies. A powered impeller near the pointed base cre- 
ated alternating right and left handed vortices in the water body, 
duplicating the negatively and positively charged longitudinal vor- 
tices at the bends of naturally flowing rivers. It was inevitable that 
for his energy-generating machines Viktor Schauberger would 
choose the egg as it is the only closed shape that will naturally gen- 
erate vortical movement. 

The in-rolling and out-rolling movement allows the water to 
absorb carbon dioxide and various trace elements that are added in 
a specific order to approximate the chemical composition of moun- 
tain spring water. Some four litres of water are drained off while car- 
bon dioxide is introduced. Once the motor has been started, the 
carbon dioxide is absorbed into the water. Through the vortical 
action and resultant cooling, it is changed into carbonic acid, which 


creates a vacuum. When the water has cooled down to 4°C (39°F), 
cold oxidation takes place, allowing the assimilation of the trace ele- 
ments and minerals. 

The process takes three-quarters of an hour, and the water is 
then left to stand in a cold temperature for 24 hours. The water, 
when sipped slowly straight from the egg at a temperature of not 
more than 8°C (46°F) will neutralize any over-acidity in the body, 
allowing the cells, by taking up oxygen (which is passive at this tem- 
perature), to return to health. 

The implosion motor 

This ambitious machine was designed as an electric power genera- 
tor, though it did also produce high quality water. It worked on the 
same principle as the Repulsator, being first filled to exclude air and 
then drained sufficiently to allow the simultaneous introduction of 
carbon dioxide. 

It was difficult to build, being dependent on a series of identical 
whorl pipe water jets conceived to replicate the shape of a Kudu 
antelope horn. This intriguingly shaped tube, which has an egg- 
shaped cross section, allows an almost perfect hyperbolic double 
spiral flow to manifest. The shape of the pipe and reducing diame- 
ter follow the proportions of the Golden section (see p. 69). 

This configuration operates in the same way as Viktor's pipe in 
the Stuttgart experiment, where the shape of the pipe directed the 
water in an involuting flow away from the pipe walls, significantly 
reducing the friction. In the two forms of whorl-pipe shown in the 
diagram (see Fig. 18.1), the water rotates either in the same direction 
as the spiral twist of the pipe, or in the opposite direction, depend- 
ing on which whorl-pipe is selected, the hydraulic efficiency of either 
being determined by experiment. In practice only one or other of the 
whorl-pipe configurations would be attached to the central hub. 

This centrifugal/centripetal effect creates a double spiral motion 
to the water, cooling and condensing it; it also allows the energies to 
change polarities, eg from magnetic to bioelectric or from electric 
to biomagnetic. This change of polarities would convert resistance- 
producing energies into motion-enhancing ones, such as levita- 
tional and diamagnetic dynagens. 

When the centripulser is rotated by the motor at 1200 revolutions 
per minute, the water is centrifuged down the whorl pipes while 

Fig. 18.2. The repulsator. For the biological 
synthesis of spring water: 

(a) Alexandersson's (above) 

(b) Schauberger's (below) 

discharge of 
rising noble water 

carbonic acid or 
carbon-dioxide Ink 


inlet for 
— , water and 
- — 331 noble 


chamber^,/ oscillation 



7m^^ ln "* 

drive pulley 


undergoing a double spiral centripetal contraction. It leaves the 
1mm diameter nozzle (there are 4 per pipe) with tremendous force 
because of its density and high velocity. The exit velocity of the water 
is about l,290m/sec, (four times the speed of sound), which makes 
it as solid and hard as steel wire. 

The following is the eye-witness report of Gretl Schneider, who 
accompanied Arnold Hohl, one of Viktor's observers: 

Mr Viktor Schauberger has demonstrated the machine to me. 
The previous huge construction is no more. It has been 
reduced to half its former size and in operation develops enor- 
mous power. I poured a pot of water into the bottom of it. The 
machine produced an almost inaudible sound and then a 'pfff 
in the same instant and the water pierced right through a 4cm 
thick concrete slab and a 4mm thick super-hardened steel plate 
with such force that the water-particles, invisible to the eye due 
to their high velocity, penetrated right through all clothing and 
were experienced as lightning needle-pricks on the skin. Water 
glass was also passed through and solidified in 5cm long hairs 
on the outside of the casing, like bristles. 11 

Some of Viktor's machines did not need a starting motor, and 
would get going on their own with a few cranks of a manual start- 
ing handle. The heavy centripulser perhaps required one, but after 
gaining sufficient speed would produce sufficient energy to self- 
rotate. If the machine works as Viktor claimed, the generator 
should produce ten times more power than the motor needs, or a 
ninefold surplus of electric current. One of the problems with Vik- 
tor's machines was more how to stop them than getting them 
started. Another was keeping the machine anchored to the floor to 
stop the strong levitational energies that were generated from lift- 
ing it into the air. 

The repulsine and the flying saucer 

As we described in Chapter 1, there were several models of this 
machine developed, the first in 1940 to investigate free energy pro- 
duction, later to validate Viktor's theories about levitational flight, 
but in the mid- 1940s as prototypes of a new secret weapon of the 
Third Reich: 


There are many rumours about what Schauberger was actu- 
ally doing during this period, most of which suggest that he 
was in charge of developing 'flying discs' under contract to the 
army. It later become known that 'the 'flying disc' launched in 
Prague on the 19th of February 1945, which rose to an alti- 
tude of 15,000 metres in three minutes and attained a for- 
ward speed of 2,200 kph, was a development of the prototype 
he built at Mauthausen concentration camp. Schauberger 
wrote, 'I first heard of this event only after the war through 
one of the technicians who had worked with me.' In a letter to 
a friend, dated the 2nd August 1956, Schauberger com- 
mented,'The machine was said to have been destroyed just 
before the end of the war on [Field Marshal] Keitel's orders.' 12 

This was a much larger version of a 20cm diameter one that Viktor 
built at the Schloss Schonbrunn which was called the Repulsine. It 
contained a small high speed electric motor capable of producing 
up to 20,000rpm at which point the auto-rotation of the cen- 
tripulser was initiated. 'This machine generated such a powerful 
levitational force, that when it was started (in Viktor's absence), it 
sheared the six quarter-inch diameter high-tensile steel anchor 
bolts and shot upwards to smash against the roof of the hangar.' 13 

There were in fact two different types of the Repulsine. One was 
secured to the ground and designed to produce power by means of 
a horizontal shaft; the other to fly. Both produced strong levitational 
energy — hence the second anecdote above. 

As the velocities produced by the centripulsing process increase, 
the air molecules become cooler and more condensed through the 
interaction of both centripetral and centrifugal forces. The reduc- 
tion in volume may reach 1/816, when air is converted into water, 
and produces a powerful vacuum inside that rapidly draws in larger 
amounts of air, creating a secondary vacuum above the saucer. The 
extreme centripulsion and densation not only produce an antigrav- 
ity effect, but also raise the energy level beyond the physical, so that 
the electrons and protons are compressed back into their fourth 
dimension origins. 

All of these actions contribute to the levitational affect, enhanc- 
ing the principal upwards force provided by the densely com- 
pressed atoms passing through the aerofoil slits of the turbine 
blades ('t') before being thrust out between the outer cowl ('A') and 


Fig. 18.3 & 4. Repusaltor prototypes. 

the inner cowl ('E') with explosive force, hurling the saucer into the 
semi-vacuum above it (see Fig. 18.5, opposite). 

Callum Coats in his fourth volume of the Eco-Technology series, 
Energy Evolution, brings together Viktor Schauberger s notes, com- 
ments and discussions that have survived the appropriation of the 
Soviet and American authorities. In that fascinating volume the 
machines discussed are the Air-turbine machine, Water-driven and 
Air-driven implosion machines, the Repulsator, the Klimator and the 
Repulsine. Sadly, the text often refers to sketches that are missing. 

The Air-turbine machine created an artificial thunderstorm, 
operating on the principle of the tornado. Schauberger envisaged 
this as a fuel-less silent engine to power an aircraft by creating a 
vacuum in front to pull it forward. The Water and Air-driven implo- 
sion machines operated on the principle of a powerful vacuum; he 
designed a submarine using a water-driven implosion motor. The 
Klimator was a cooling or heating machine designed for domestic 
air conditioning. 

There is no doubt that Viktor Schauberger produced a number 
of impressive and highly innovative machines for various purposes, 
and we have eye witness accounts of the operation of some, as well 
as some of his notes. However, any prototypes or working models 
were either destroyed in Germany during the war, or were expropri- 
ated from his fiat by the Russians who first occupied Vienna, or con- 
fiscated by the Americans when they overran the Leonstein works 
at war's end, or by the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium, who spir- 
ited him away to Texas in their ill-fated attempt to acquire his secret 

In the meantime it must be noted that there is no proof that any 
of them reliably produced over a significant period the power that 
was intended. 

There are a number of people in America and Australia working 
on Schauberger s ideas, though the political climate has repressed 
development of their work. Let us hope that if these conditions 
improve, we might see modifications of some of Viktor's machines 
making their appearance. We shall be examining in the next chap- 
ter some of the new initiatives that have been inspired by Viktor's 

The tragedy of Viktor Schauberger's life was of being born into a 
society with little interest in his dream of helping humanity become 
empowered and free. Instead, to his intense sadness and heartache 


he found his inspired vision of working with Nature twisted towards 
the military aims of one of the most sadistic regimes of modern 

American science could not take seriously someone with no edu- 
cation in science. Viktor Schauberger was hardly one to be consid- 
ered as a contender for the stakes of space-age innovation. He merely 
observed Nature and talked about fish swimming in mountain 
streams, yet he was the one who cracked the anti-gravity challenge. 
As he himself remarked: 

Implosion is no invention in the conventional sense, but 
rather the renaissance of ancient knowledge, lost over the 
course of time. 15 

Fig. 18.5. Cross section through flying 

A — 1.2mm thick curved copper sheet, with 
central opening seen on Fig. 18.3. Between rilled 
plates B & C, air is drawn in due to the 
centripulser's high rate of rotation and subjected to 
powerful centrifugal and oscillating forces which 
cool and condense it. Transforming into water 
condenses air 816 times, causing a vacuum which 
accelerates the intake of more air. At revolutions of 
20,000 rpm, vacuum and densification become 
intense, packing the molecules so tightly as to 
cause a levitational effect. The living vacuum thus 
created changes the atoms into a virtual state, 
compressing them back into their original 4th 
dimensional formlessness. 


19. Viktor Schauberger and Society 

The human legacy 

We have been concerned in this study so far to give an overview of 
Schauberger's insights into how Nature works at the subtle level. 
Viktor also had strong views on where our society has gone wrong 
and where we might start to make changes. First we shall seek 
insights on the human level and, later, we shall mention some ongo- 
ing developments and research inspired by Viktor's work. 

Viktor was a natural scientist and visionary who challenged the 
very worldview of a culture that considers itself to be at the apex of 
human achievement. His is not a political view, nor a particularly 
moral one. He was continually exasperated by the literal blindness 
of those in power, their inability to see what was before their very 
eyes. 1 

Viktor Schauberger's observations and vision have given us the 
keys to disentangling the environmental mess we have got ourselves 
into. His insights were not limited to technology and how we do 
things, but to all of life. If we were able to see that our education, 
social organization, philosophy, religions, medicine and science 
were all based on seeing only a part-world, we would have a sense 
of how much more exciting and fulfilling life could be on this won- 
derful planet, if we could escape from our materialistic worldview 
and accept our place on Nature's interconnected plane. 

But, like the crowd in Hans Andersen's tale going along with the 
naked Emperor's fantasies, we are all accomplices in this tragic cha- 
rade. Schauberger put it forcefully: 

If humanity does not soon come to its senses, and realize 
that it has been misled and misinformed by its intellectual 
leaders, the prevailing laws of Nature (with poetic justice) 
will reliably act to bring about a fitting end to this ineptly 
contrived culture. Unfortunately, the most frightful catastro- 
phes or scandalous disclosures will have to happen before 
people become aware that it is their own mistakes that have 
led to their undoing. These can be rectified only with great 


difficulty, precisely because it was those in power principally 
who committed them. Rather than question themselves, 
these institutions and individuals, ever protective of their 
own interests, would allow millions of their fellow human 
beings to perish before they would ever admit their errors. 

A host of so-called experts is lined up against any 
systematic attempt to correct these errors. They are obliged to 
advocate the course they have championed, because it is their 
livelihood and they wish to be looked after until the end of 
their days. Yet, even this obstacle might be overcome if the 
mistakes could be restricted at least to a particular branch of 
industry. A thorough analysis of the most common mistakes 
made over the centuries reveals the enormous extent of the 
malaise arising from flawed principles and perverse 
practices. It reveals such grave cultural, technological and 
economic violations that no branch of industry is left 
untouched. Not even a partially unaware expert can absolve 
himself of blame, whatever his chosen field. 

At the outset a powerful opposition must be reckoned 
with. It would be futile to expect any support from experts 
when, under these circumstances, it is obvious that nearly 
every one of them would be threatened. But this obstacle 
should cause no alarm, for we are not concerned here with 
the livelihood of a few, but with the survival of the whole of 
hoodwinked humanity. The attitude of many of our young 
people today certainly provides clear evidence that humanity 
is still morally healthy. They militate vehemently against the 
signs of decay emerging everywhere and refuse to continue to 
trot mindlessly down the road... that has led us into an 
economic and cultural cul-de-sac. 

Opposition alone, however, achieves nothing. Our youth 
will achieve any practical success in their struggle only when 
the causes are identified and the errors are revealed that 
previous generations and we have made, so plunging the 
world into disaster. 2 

Schauberger wrote often of how balance is one of Nature's most 
urgent requirements. He would comment on how humanity is con- 
travening Nature's law of balance. Amongst these imbalances are 
the enormous inequalities in wealth and opportunity in almost 


every country on the globe; a totally unacceptable level of persecu- 
tion, abuse and lack of human rights; the pursuit of mindless, hedo- 
nistic and materialistic activities; and above all a lack of 
compassion or respect for fellow human beings of whatever origin, 
and for the animal and plant kingdoms. These are not moral obser- 
vations of humankind, but part of a detached view of why we are 
violating the health of Nature or the planetary biosphere. 

In Chapter Two, you may remember, when we discussed how all 
material objects are composed of atoms and particles in constant 
motion, it becomes possible to understand that everything is 
energy. There are different kinds of energy; thoughts and feelings 
are energy. Energy has qualities as well as frequency. Energies and 
actions of differing qualities affect each other favourably or 
adversely. For example, the crucial ingredients of the human being's 
gift of free will are intention and commitment. The quality of the 
intention (self-important/greedy or loving/compassionate) affects 
the quality of all our actions and their outcomes. Healing of any 
kind or at any level is affected by the quality of the healer's energy. 
In one's experience this becomes quite clear, yet apparently it is 
beyond the ken of contemporary science. Viktor Schauberger was 
amazed that this basic knowledge was not part of our education. 

Viktor was attuned to the wider field of knowledge, and felt that 
our educational system greatly contributes to our society's limited 
worldview. He did not specifically write about this topic, but the fol- 
lowing quote from a recent study very much sums up what he felt, 
and helps us to understand where things have to change: 

Our much-vaunted educational system specializes in instill- 
ing the known. There is a token and often grossly insufficient 
acknowledgment of the process of knowing. The knower is 
the Cinderella of almost every educational system. Self-aware- 
ness is actually obscured by conventional education, which 
cultivates a mentality of splitting, separating and compart- 
mentalizing. Knowledge is gained of separate disciplines 
which are greatly divorced from the knower, isolated from 
each other and cut off from their connection to life lived in 
the world. As a result, by the time pupils leave school, if they 
are lucky their minds may have been fairly well-honed, but 
they are tuned to specialization and the particular, adept at 
putting things in boxes with labels, rather than being open to 


the larger field of knowledge. Their energies may be well 
channeled, but they display only a fraction of the creative 
innocence and appetite for life and learning of a small child. 
(Ardui and Wrycza, The Way of Unfolding) 3 

What of the future? 

Viktor Schauberger realized that the human community had little 
time to change its ways and begin to follow Nature's laws, before the 
inevitable reckoning that Nature will require of humanity. He had a 
rather touching faith in the ability of the younger generation to 
overthrow the oligarchies of power. However, in the last fifty years, 
the ability of a controlled media, especially television, to manipulate 
and undermine cultural behaviour, and the apparent irreversibility 
of the drug culture, have discouraged hope of initiatives coming 
from the young. 4 

The years since Schauberger's death have also seen the tentacles 
of multinational corporations reaching into every country in the 
world, capitalism at its worst. The capitalist system which has devel- 
oped in the past 500 years or so, has brought unprecedented wealth 
to millions across the world. This increase in people's individual 
incomes (which admittedly expands their choices) has come at the 
appalling cost of pulling humanity as a whole out of balance with 
its environment; it is the enemy of biodiversity, and therefore of 
Nature. Until our human society has more interest in moral and eth- 
ical concerns than in making money, we are probably stuck with 
capitalism, for state ownership of industry has not always proved 
particularly workable. 

The other structure with which we seem to be saddled is so- 
called democracy, which despite its name, has proved to be nearly 
as corrupt a way of centralizing power as any totalitarian system. If 
we wish to participate in society, we are committed to some extent 
to collude with these systems. 

If more choices were made on moral and ethical grounds, rather 
than self-interest, the capitalist system might be doomed. However, 
if we can begin to see that the engine that drives Nature and its evo- 
lutionary processes has its origin in the supreme spiritual centre 
and source of all creativity (of which Nature is the mirror), then 
our moral principles would have a more stable foundation. Nature 
has no morality; but its laws seem to have been designed by the 


supreme consciousness to harmonize with the moral and ethical 
standards set by 'God' for humanity (e.g. The Ten Command- 
ments). The most relevant of Nature's laws for us are perhaps the 
laws of Balance, of Biodiversity, and of Evolution towards higher 

On present performance, it is doubtful whether the human com- 
munity can remain viable into the twenty-second century; the seeds 
of our self-destruction have been sown so widely. I have always felt 
that it would take a worldwide disaster to bring about the collapse 
of our corrupt systems, which could return decision making to the 
place where it really belongs - the local community, in respectful 
relationship to its natural environment; which, we must accept, has 
happened in the past. 

Dr Dorothy Rowe, the distinguished psychologist, said in a 
recent interview: 'Ninety-nine percent of suffering isn't caused by 
natural disasters; it's caused by the ideas we hold. And if we believe 
these ideas are absolute truths, then we suffer and we force other 
people to suffer. But if we believe that our ideas are ideas we have 
created, then we know we're free to change them.' 5 



Implementing Schauberger's vision 

It is clear that many are now responding to Viktor's call to become 
familiar with Nature's laws and to work with them. They are recog- 
nizing that this is the only way to start turning back from the termi- 
nal disasters that otherwise surely await humankind. As with any 
significant changes of consciousness in human history, a few pio- 
neers become the leaven through which all of society starts to wake 
up and, like a cosmic shift, the awakening becomes unstoppable. 

What follows are examples of what these pioneers are up to. For 
the most part these are very practical projects, often to do with 
water purification, river management or energy generation. What 
these innovations often have in common is the influence of the spi- 
ral or of vortex energy. The one area that is missing is that of implo- 
sive energy generation. Without Viktor's models and detailed 
drawings, it is hard to see how anyone can crack that nut, unless 
someone in American or Russian intelligence leaks some vital notes 
(as with Evgeny Podkletnov). 

There is, however, the theory of spontaneous or synchronistic 
origination, which some claim accounted for the simultaneous 
discovery of electricity and other significant technical break- 
throughs. When the time is right and the need is great, perhaps 
some higher intelligence with a concern for human evolution has 
cooperated through Nature to sow simultaneously the necessary 
seeds in a number of fertile minds. 

Contact addresses and websites for individuals and groups men- 
tioned here, and others, are found in Resources, on p. 276. 


Olof Alexandersson is a Swedish engineer who became interested in 
Viktor Schauberger's research in 1956 and wrote the excellent intro- 
ductory book Living Water: Viktor Schauherger and the Secrets of 
Natural Energy. He did not meet Viktor, but developed a friendship 


with his son Walter and met many of Viktor's old friends and col- 
leagues. In 1963 he formed the Swedish Science Group for Biotech - 
nical Technology which produced (among other devices) an 
'apparatus for biological synthesis of spring water,' which was sim- 
ilar to Viktor's Repulsator. 

This important research is being carried on today by the Insti- 
tute for Ecological Technology (IET) in Malmo, Sweden. IET was 
formed by Olof Alexandersson as a foundation to continue the 
work of Biotechnical Technology. In the early 1980s IET organized 
an expedition to the Ouluanka Nature national park in Finland. Its 

aim was to verify Viktor's observations in an untouched natural 

__ .. , _ . , , , , , . . . Fig. A. 1. The Pytghagoras Kepler 

environment. Later, IET replicated Schauberger s double water jets school at Engleithen 

experiment and (see p. 99) continued to work with the Repulsator. 

Today IET is run as an association which evaluates, develops and 
applies Viktor Schauberger's ideas and theories. It operates a loose net- 
work, the IET-community, to help anyone who has an idea for a 
research project in the area, and runs networking seminars. IET helped 
with the organization of International Workshops for Natural Energies 
(IWONE 2001) in Leipzig and IWONE 2003 near Malmo, Sweden. 

IET (which was known as the 'Malmo group') has replicated 
Schauberger's Stuttgart experiments, interpreting them in the light 
of modern chaos and self-organizing systems research. Ongoing 
projects are mainly in three areas: for the purification, improvement 
and desalination of water; for energy production using ideas from 
the turbine in the Repulsine; and propulsion methods for air and 
water vehicles. 


After his father died, Walter Schauberger set up, in 1962, the 
Pythagoras Kepler School (PKS) at Engleithen in the Salzkam- 
mergut mountains of Upper Austria (Fig. A.l). Walter was a physi- 
cist and mathematician, and set out to validate mathematically his 
father's research. 6 His particular interests were harmonic theories 
(the monochord) and conceptions of non-Euclidean geometry 
(plane sections of a hyperbolic cone). He never published his 
research; however, Callum Coats, who studied with Walter at the 
PKS, is currently writing up some of Walter's work. It was intended 
that Walter's eldest son, a lawyer, Dr Tilman Schauberger should 
succeed him at the PKS but, in the event, Tilman died shortly after 
his father's death in 1994. 


As a result, Walter's younger son Jorg gave up his work in the Aus- 
trian media to help save his grandfather's work. Aided by his wife, he 
runs courses at the PKS for those who wish to learn more about the 
Eco-technology heritage. Every year, there are usually about six sem- 
inars in German, with participants from Austria, Germany, Switzer- 
land, but also from Italy, Hungary, the Benelux Countries or from 
Scandinavia. Less frequently they now also run international semi- 
nars in English, bringing together people from all over the world who 
are engaged in Schauberger-inspired research, to share their find- 
ings. Speakers at these seminars are specialists or technicians in 
water or environmental issues who are willing to follow unorthodox 
ways of studying how Nature works. Members of the PKS now give 
lectures in many different countries round the world. 

Water and the vortex are the present main topics of study at the 
PKS. However, they intend to test Viktor's ideas for river balancing 
with energy bodies and flow guides to help rivers flow naturally and 
to protect valuable land and property from flooding. 

The Schauberger Archives are open for research by appointment 
— see the PKS website. The PKS copper gardening tools, books, 
cards and videos are on sale by mail order. 


Although Viktor's contemporaries have long since gone, and also 
most of Walter's, there are still some who knew them. Dr Norbert 
Harthun has re-formed his Gruppe der Neuen (the New Group), 
whose aims are to explore Viktor and Walter Schauberger's theories 
and to interpret them in contemporary scientific idiom. 

In 1967 the terms 'environmental pollution and 'environmental 
protection' were virtually unheard of. At that time nobody 
demanded a gentle technology, friendly to Nature. In that year Wal- 
ter Schauberger, a scientist who was then a 'lone voice,' gave a lec- 
ture on 'Biologically Oriented Technology,' in the centre of the 
heavily polluted Ruhr (the main coal mining area of Germany). 
Inspired by Walter's message, Norbert Harthun, and a few other spe- 
cialists, persuaded Walter to join the Gruppe der Neuen in Aachen 
to promote a technology that conformed with Nature's laws. The 
Group also decided to launch their own scientific bulletin Mensch 
und Technik — naturgemass to publish articles about the possibili- 
ties of a new science for working with Nature. This innovative jour- 
nal has now been a leader in its field for 26 years. 


Members of the Group have given many lectures at home and 
abroad on the theme of how to restore good heart to Nature and the 
environment as part of a requirement for a high quality of life. The 
pioneering work of this and similar groups has initiated a change in 
awareness that was inconceivable thirty years ago. The 'Gruppe der 
Neuen' has remained consistently independent from institutions 
and sponsors. It is still active, and its website gives details of its pub- 
lished articles. 

Implosion is a quarterly magazine founded in 1958 by Aloys Kokaly, 
generally aimed at the lay reader, which is still published quarterly 
or semi-annually by Klaus Rauber. It has been, without doubt, the 
richest repository of Viktor Schauberger's writing (in German), and 
has been the source of substantial portions of the Eco-technology 


John Wilkes, an artist and sculptor at Emerson College in Sussex, 
has pioneered the Virbela Flowforms, which are a series of formed 
basins, arranged on sloping ground, to stimulate a water flow into 
figure-of-eight vortical movements, causing the water to pulsate 
rhythmically (Fig. A.2). This movement simulates a mountain 
stream, energizing, restructuring and oxygenating the water. His 
first Flowform installed near Stockholm, Sweden in 1973, which is 
part of a biological sewage recycling system for a community of 200, 
has been a great success. The recently established Flow Design 
Research Institute, through the Virbela International Association, 
has contacts in 35 countries that have led to more than 1000 instal- 
lations in over thirty countries, their purposes ranging from the 
aesthetic and educational to biological purification, farming, inte- 
rior air conditioning and medical/therapeutic use. For further 
information, see Wilkes' Flowforms: the Rhythmic Power of Water. 

Wilkes studied projective geometry under the distinguished 
mathematician George Adams, joining him at the Institut fur Stro- 
mungswissenschaften (Flow Research Institute) at Herrischried in 
Germany, where he later collaborated with Theodor Schwenk (see 
Sensitive Chaos). It is tempting to believe that Schauberger's insights 
about water probably share a common source with those of Adams. 
Certainly people often tend to link Wilkes' Flowforms with 
Schauberger's vision of water. 

Fig. A.2. Flowform. 


Fig. A.3. Vortex energizer. 
Fig. A.4. Triple harmonizer. 

Implementations, a British group which markets the Schauberger- 
inspired copper gardening tools is also developing a full-sized phos- 
phor bronze 'Golden Plough' in order to run tests to replicate the 
increases in fertility that Viktor found with his prototype. 

A novel initiative combining healing techniques with the 
Schauberger vortex principle has been developed by the Centre for 
Implosion Research (CIR), in Plymouth. Specially imploded water 
is injected into a spiral-vortex cone-shaped copper pipe. The specific 
shape enables continual recharging of the imploded water from cos- 
mic energy (the ether) always present in the environment, and is used 
to improve the quality of either standing water or drinking water sup- 
plies and to balance the energy in local environments (Fig. A.3). 

The CIR also produces much smaller,'personal harmonizers,' flat 
spiral shaped tubular forms inspired from the spiral carvings found 
at the great Neolithic ritual site at New Grange in Ireland (Fig. A.4). 
The small tubes contain imploded water, which is continually 
recharged by the environment because of their spiral form. Worn as 
ornaments or jewellery, they enhance the personal energy field and 
may be placed under a glass of water or a wineglass to improve the 
quality of the liquid. The great popularity of these devices is a com- 
pliment to their efficacy to improve energy or enhance individuals' 
sense of protection and of wellbeing (see 


One of a number of vortex water treatment groups, Clean-Water has 
developed a very practical two-litre jug for home use. The Living 
Water Vortex Jug (Fig. A.5) employs in its screw-down lid a small 
motor to drive a silver impeller that forms a splendid vortex in the 
water for 3 1/2 minutes. It claims to erase impressions of the water's 
history of abuse, by superimposing more refined, constructive ener- 
gies (see p. 156). The water is restructured, cooled, softened and 
purified, and has been very well received worldwide. 


The pioneer spirit is still alive in the USA, and we expect to add 
many to our list of American Schauberger innovators. The interest 
in permaculture and biodynamic farming predisposes many 
towards Schauberger's vision. 

One such is Dan Reese, who developed Vortex Water Systems 
in Texas, inspired by reading Alexandersson's Living Water. They are 


designed to solve the increasing problem of pollution of wells in the 
American South, by unwanted salts and minerals, and to restruc- 
ture the water so that it feels smooth, uses less soap and tastes pure. 
The Vortex system (Fig. A.6) has no moving parts or filters, does not 
use chemicals and is driven only by the force of the well pump. 

It was found that the system could be expanded to service as 
many as 76 homes from one well. A system is now being tested for 
removing mineral salts from a salt intrusion well and a larger farm 
system to help with the problem of cotton rot and to use less water 
to grow the same amount of crops. These will be major break- 
throughs for the industry. 


As in the USA, many Australians are sympathetic to Schauberger's 
ideas. Many people depend on rivers for their water source. The 
author, Callum Coats, who has tested a number of Viktor's experi- 
ments, was inspired to design a well to receive water filtered from 
the river. A well should be dug about 5-10 metres from the river 
bank, depending on the size of the river, about 1.5 metres in diam- 
eter, the depth to correspond to the depth of the river bed. If the soil 
between the river and the well shaft is porous, the water will be fil- 
tered by the soil. If the soil is impervious, a channel connecting the 
river and well shaft should be dug and filled with fine sand to act 

Fig. A.5. Living water vortex jug. 

Fig. A.6. Vortex water system. 


as a filter. The well shaft must be entirely covered at the surface, to 
keep the well dark and cool and discourage the growth of patho- 
genic bacteria. The pump should be well away from the opening to 
avoid pollution, and the opening should be raised if there is any 
chance of the river flooding and pouring into the well (see Living 
Energies, p. 202.) This system was first set up in 1972 and in recent 
contact with the present owner of the property (purchased in 
1979) Callum Coats was told that the water supply had at all times 
functioned flawlessly, and still does. 

Callum Coats is also involved in the making of a three-part video 
on Viktor Schauberger s theories in conjunction with Martin Selecki 
of 'Filmstrearn in Byron Bay, NSW, as well as in the production of a 
50 litre water cooling egg-shaped container in association with Phil 
Sedgman of 'Living Water Flow-Forms,' also of Byron Bay. 




1. Living Energies, p. 28. 

2. The Emergence of Biotechnology,' by 
A.Khammas, Implosion magazine no.83, 
p. 19. 

3. The Schauberger Archives, Linz, Jan, 1952. 

4. The scientific environment has consider- 
ably narrowed. Scientific research in the 
1930s was largely government funded, and 
research for the most part was independ- 
ent of commercial interest. Schauberger 
would be appalled by the present environ- 
ment which, still identified with the mate- 
rial viewpoint, is now almost entirely de- 
pendent on industrial funding and the 
consequent demand that scientific re- 
search serves the needs of business and 
commerce. In addition, the anonymous 
'peer review' system is a form of censor- 
ship against those who propose research 
that does not conform to convention, or 
which threatens the reviewer's own 

5. Living Energies, p. 9. His arch enemies, 
the Viennese Association of Engineers, 
had hatched a plot to dispose of him in a 
mental hospital, under SS observation. 
Schauberger was to go into the Vienna 
University clinic for a routine examina- 
tion of his WWI wounds. Before this, by 
coincidence, he had tea with an old 
friend, Mrs Primavesi and told her he 
would return in twenty minutes. When he 
did not, and she found he had not re- 
turned home either, she went to the 
nearby clinic, whose director she knew 
well, refusing to leave until Viktor had 
been found. He turned up in the portion 
of the hospital reserved for the mentally 
insane, trussed up in a straightjacket 
waiting for the lethal injection (the stan- 
dard practice for the disposal of undesir- 
ables in that regime). Needless to say, she 
quickly extricated him. (Another theory 
is that the plot against him was ordered 
by Hitler himself, who had met 

6. See also Chapter 18, p. 252, for Richard St 
Barbe Baker's account. 

7. Viktor Schauberger, Our Senseless Toil. 

1. Schauberger's Vision 

1. The Schauberger Archives. 
2 Published in Die Wasserwirtschaft, 20,1930. 
3. Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh, 
by Helen Norberg-Hodge. 

2. Different Kinds of Energy 

1. A few years ago, it was established by pre- 
cise calculation that the bumblebee's body 
weight prohibits it from flying, according 
to the laws of aerodynamics. (Just as well 
the humble bee wasn't told.) Clearly there 
is much that conventional science does 
not understand about Nature! 

2. Teilhard de Chardin, priest-scientist, was 
the first to propose this, in answer to his 
ongoing question: 'How can the two realms 
of our experience, the outer and inner 
worlds, be reconciled?' David Bohm went 
further, insisting that matter and energy 
are one and the same. He described two or- 
ders, the Explicate Order being what we can 
measure and to some extent describe; and 
the Implicate Order which we cannot meas- 
ure, and in our present state of knowledge 
and evolution, cannot adequately describe. 

3. The implication of this natural law is that 
compassion will triumph over selfish- 
ness, generosity over greed, a law more 
evident higher up the evolutionary lad- 
der. This outcome may at present look 
distant, but if we believe that it is meant 
to be, then our small attempts to make 
changes should gain the cooperation of 
all-powerful Nature. This is similar to the 
Christian belief that God will cooperate if 
only we take the first steps. Also, see 'Op- 
posites working towards Balance 1 (p. 52). 

4. The qualities of higher dimensions are: 
Fourth — Time (control of space/time); 
Fifth — Presence (outside of space/ time); 
Sixth — Potential (the creative state 
which is non-dimensional); Seventh — 
Gateway to the Divine. 

5. These diagrams are from From Atoms to 
Angels by Paul Walsh-Roberts, a very ac- 
cessible introduction to these concepts. 

6. Another important by-product of quan- 
tum physics research is the work of US 

physicist Hugh Everett, who in 1957 ob- 
served that when a measurement is per- 
formed on a quantum system, all possible 
outcomes of the measurement actually oc- 
cur; this contrasts with the conventional 
view that only one of many possible states 
is ever observed. His proposal leads to the 
conclusion that the Universe is constandy 
dividing to give vast numbers of alterna- 
tive universes that co-exist, but do not in- 
teract with each other, and that we live in a 
single one of these many universes. 

7. For a good introduction to the dimen- 
sional shift and how it will affect us all, 
see Cori, The Cosmos of Soul (details in 

8. See further particularly in Chapter 3. Cal- 
lum Coats calls this resolution of appar- 
ently conflicting elements 'dialectic think- 
ing,' by which unity is found (Living 
Energies, pp. 61-64, esp. table p. 63), and 
quotes Hegel defining this as,'the process 
of thought by which such contradictions 
are seen to merge themselves in a higher 
truth that comprehends them.' 

9. Living Energies, p. 74. 

3. The Attraction and Repulsion of 

1. The ozone layer filters out the harmful ul- 
tra-violet rays known as UVa and UVb. 
The UVc, which have a different wave- 
length, are allowed through, and play a 
large part in the growth of organisms (for 
instance, helping to build healthy bones). 

2 Viktor Schauberger once commented 
wryly that instead of asking himself what 
caused the apple to fall to the ground, Sir 
Isaac Newton should have asked how it 
got up there in the first place! 

4. Natures Patterns and Shapes 

1. Your Body Doesn't Lie (Behavioral Kinesi- 
ology) by John Diamond MD, Harper and 
Row, New York, 1979. 

2. This is the basis of the 'muscle test' to dis- 
cover foods that may be toxic for some- 
one. The subject holds the sample (maybe 
a bottle of wine) in the left hand, or to 


their chest, while the 'tester' tries to push 
down the raised right arm of the subject, 
who tries to resist the pressure. If the arm 
has lost muscle tone, the food may have an 
undesirable effect on the subject. 

3. Living Energies, p. 42. 

4. If they are above absolute zero (-273°C). 

5. BBC Wildlife magazine, June 2001. 

6. See Bibliography: Backster; also Bird & 
Tompkins The Secret Life of Plants contains 
an evaluation of his work. 

7. Cymatics: The Study of the Interrelation- 
ship of Wave-forms with Matter, by Hans 
Jenny, Basilius Press, Basle, 1966. 

8. Democritus (460-370 BC) 

9. Callum Coats shows scores of examples 
from Nature in Living Energies, pp. 5 1 — 53. 

10. Harold S. Burr, Blueprint for Immortality: 
Electrical Patterns of life Discovered, 
Spearman, 1972. 

11. Lawrence Edwards: The Vortex of Life: 
Natures Patterns in Time and Space, 
Floris Books, 1993. 

12. Earth's diameter is 7,920 miles; the 
Moon's is 2,160. 

13. Named after a twelfth century Italian 
mathematician bom in Pisa, Leonardo 
Fibonacci or Filio Bonaccio. The son of 
an Italian customs agent based in 
Alexandria, he helped to bring Arabic 
numbers to the Roman world and popu- 
larized the modern decimal system of 
numbers. The series bearing his name 
progresses by adding the two previous 
numbers to make the next, e.g. 1,1,2,3, 
5,8,13,21,34,55,89, etc. (It is said that 
he used it as a model for the growth of a 
population of rabbits.) Dividing a Fi- 
bonacci number by the number before it 
produces the Golden Mean proportion 
(the Golden Ratio) in increasing accuracy 
of decimal places, the larger the number. 

14. Walter Schauberger's research of this 
phenomenon was groundbreaking. 

5. Energy Production 

1. There is controversy about whether hu- 
man activities are the cause of global 
warming. Climate change goes through 
enormous cycles. In Britain, for example, 
from 1,000 years ago when it was much 
warmer than now (grapes were grown in 
Scotland), to 200-300 years ago when the 
ice on the Thames could support an ele- 
phant, with many fluctuations in be- 

tween. We have insufficient records to say 
with certainty that the present acceler- 
ated warming world-wide is cyclical in its 
origin. However, there is little doubt that 
its increasingly severe impact is greatly 
compounded by the enormous output of 
carbon emissions (Observer, January 5, 
2003). See also Chap. 13, note 1. 

2. The average fuel consumption of a typi- 
cal car allows a journey of 620 miles 
(1000km) for an energy expenditure of 
lOOOkW, or one person's annual energy 
consumption. In terms of oxygen con- 
sumed, a car driven at 50kph requires 
22.25kg of oxygen, roughly 750 times the 
amount needed by a human being for the 
same period. In eleven hours, the car has 
consumed the oxygen one human being 
requires for a year. Callum Coats calcu- 
lated that to replenish the oxygen de- 
voured by the world's roughly 450 rnillion 
vehicles would require a healthy produc- 
tive forest of 38 million km 2 , or 28% of 
the total world's total land area. 

3. Kilowatt hours. 

4. The ratio between created matter and the 
energies required to create it was estab- 
lished in 1984 by the Nobel awarded 
Swiss atomic scientist Dr Carlos Riebers 
as about 1:1 thousand million, effectively 
the proportion of the whole of reality of 
which we are aware. 

5. Entropy has its counterpart — ectropy 
(sometimes called 'negentropy'). The laws 
of entropy or thermodynamics apply to 
the products of our mechanistic science 
as it is a 'closed system. Nature, however, 
is an open system, and one finds in fact 
that entropic tendencies are held in check 
by the predominant ectropic ones, other- 
wise life could never have developed. Evo- 
lution is essentially ectropic or energy in- 
tegrative rather than energy dissipative, 
as increasingly complex organizations 
harmonically stabilize more energy. 

6. Weston Price: Nutrition and Physical De- 
generation, 1938,1945,1998. As an expe- 
rienced dentist, he noted the degenera- 
tion of jaw and bone structure, but also 
the deterioration in intelligence that en- 
sued from a change to western diet. 

7. Living Energies, p. 35. 

8. See Living Energies, pp. 50-55 for further 
illustrations of spiral forms in Nature. 

9. HHPrice, Wyckham professor of Logic 
at Oxford (Hibbert Jour, 1949). 

6. Motion — the Key to Balance 

1. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine 

2. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine 

3. A hyperbolic spiral represents the physi- 
cally nonmaterial centre-less dynamic of 
Nature's outside>inward motion. The phi 
spiral is the dynamic of inside>outward 
physical and material growth. 

4. Ibid. p. 56. 

5. Dr Tilman Schauberger, Viktor's grand- 
son and an expert on his work, described 
his grandfather's ideal spiral-vortical mo- 
tion, the 'Cycloid Spiral Space-curve,' as 
goal-oriented, structured, concentrated, 
intensifying, condensing, dynamic, self- 
organizing, self-divesting of the less valu- 
able, rhythmical (cyclical), sinuous, puls- 
ing, in-rolling, centripetal (and 
out-rolling centrifugal) movement. This 
applies also to Figs. 12.1 and 12.2. 

6. If the starting radius is 1 and the initial 
resistance is 1 on an inwinding path, 
when the radius is halved, the resistance 
is [V2] 2 = 'A and the rotational periodic- 
ity, frequency or velocity is doubled. 

7. The Atmosphere and Electricity 

1. High specific heat means that water is 
slow to heat up, but also slow to cool. Its 
heat retaining quality makes it good for 
heat storage systems. 

2. The temperature neither decreases nor in- 
creases constandy, but fluctuates as we as- 
cend through the various atmospheric lay- 
ers, so that at a certain altitude, at around 
7 miles (12km) for instance, the tempera- 
ture is -76°F (-60°C), whereas around 31 
miles (50km) it is 50°F (+10°C). 

3. This increases by the inverse square of 
the separation. If, for example, the sepa- 
ration is 10mm, then the potential is 12. 
If the separation is reduced to 1/2, i.e. 
5mm, then the potential is 22 (=4) and 
so on, as shown in Fig. 12.6. The smaller 
the separation, therefore, the greater the 
corresponding potential, which could be 
unleashed once the permittivity of the di- 
electric has been overcome. (Permittivity 
is the amount a substance can assist or 
resist the transfer of an electric charge.) 

4. Pure water has a dielectric value of 81, 
which is 8 1 times greater than a vacuum 


(=1). A thin layer of pure water vapour 
may therefore have the capacity to resist 
the transfer of enormous charges, per- 
mitting the accumulation of very large 
voltages and potential. The concentric 
layers of water vapour with a tempera- 
ture of 4°C may thus act like a spherical 
condenser, formed of nesting spheres 
which charge the Earth with energy. 

5. Being in a lower dynamic and more har- 
monically stabilized energetic state, the 
greater density of water vapour at increas- 
ingly lower altitudes may well correspond 
through resonance to the lower wave- 
lengths of the incident radiation, whose 
frequency has been reduced by contact 
with the braking effect of the atmosphere, 
thus creating the medium with which ra- 
dio-waves are reflected back to Earth. 

6. For elaboration of how this can be 
demonstrated, the reader may read Coats' 
description of Lord Kelvins and Walter 
Schauberger's experiments (Living Ener- 
gies, pp. 95-99). 

7. Leopold Brandstatter, Implosion start Ex- 
plosion, self-publication, Linz 10, Fach 20, 

8. Living Energies, p. 100. 

9. Kenneth David and John Day: Water — 
The Mirror of Science, p. 149, Heinemann 
Educational, 1964. 

10. A 1°C rise in temperature causes the re- 
tention, but not necessarily an even dis- 
tribution, of an additional 1,000 million 
cubic metres of water vapour in the at- 
mosphere (Living Energies,]). 100). 

8. The Nature of Water 

1. Our Senseless Toil, Pt.I, p. 1 1. 

2. See The Divining Hand by Christopher 

3. Davis, KA. and Day, JA, Water — The 
Mirror of Science, 1964. 

4. Implosion magazine, no.8., 1945. 

5. How to obtain safe drinking water is 
dealt with in Chapter 12. 

6. Viktor first came to the attention of hy- 
drologists in 1922 with his revolutionary 
water-flume design for transporting logs 
inexpensively from inaccessible un- 
touched mountain forests without the 
usual high rate of damage of conven- 
tional methods. This, his first encounter 
with opposition from the scientific es- 
tablishment, is well described in both 

Living Water and in Living Energies. 

7. The extra 'e' enlarges the meaning of the 
usual carbon,' to include a whole range of 
elements used in forming the physical 
structures of life (see further on p. 51). 

8. Viktor Schauberger, Our Senseless Toil, 
Pt.I, p. 4. 

9. The Hydrological Cycle 

1. The Memory of Water — Homeopathy 
and the Battle of Ideas in the New Science 
by Mchel Schiff, Thorsons, 1995. Callum 
Coats has more on Benveniste's research 
and the controversy around it, in Living 
Energies, pp. 119-121. 

2. The temperatures indicated on the fol- 
lowing diagrams do not necessarily con- 
form to actual temperatures, but are in- 
tended to demonstrate the process. 

10. The Formation of Springs 

1. The French for spring is source. 

2. Callum Coats adopted an impeller design 
taken from Schauberger's 1936 patent for 
an air turbine. 

11. Rivers and How they Flow 

1. From Viktor Schauberger's treatise,'Tem- 
perature and the Movement of Water' 
(Temperatur und Wasserbewegung'): Die 
Wasserwirtschaft, No.20,1930. 

2. Schauberger also pioneered new designs 
and built fourteen such dams. For infor- 
mation on this, see Living Energies pp. 
159,160, and The Water Wizard, pp. 101, 

3. See also The Water Wizard, p. 207. 

4. Schauberger established that turbulence 
was a natural automatic acceleration-re- 
stricting brake in flowing water, in a trea- 
tise he published entitled 'Turbulence.' 

5. Callum Coats in Living Energies, pp. 
176-7 describes one he saw. 

12. Supplying Water 

1. The Ecologist, May 30, 1999. 

2. International Water Management Insti- 

3. Guardian Weekly, March 14,2001. The 
UN Department of Economic and Social 
Affairs estimated that six countries will 
account for half the increase: India, 

Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, Indonesia 
and Nigeria. Their startling projection is 
based on the assumption that fertility 
will continue to decline. The population 
explosion would be even more dramatic 
but for the HTV/ATDS epidemic. The re- 
port noted that increased international 
migration would be one consequence. 
The pressure on food resources will be 
enormous, but the impact on water sup- 
plies for the developing countries will be 
nothing less than catastrophic. 

4. National Geographic magazine,'Earth's 
Fresh Water under Pressure,' Sep. 2002 

5. The Ecologist, May 30,1999. 

6. National Geographic magazine, ibid. 

7. The Ecologist, May 30,1999. 

8. Ibid., Caspar Henderson. 

9. Ibid. 

10. Viktor Schauberger, Our Senseless Toil. 

11. Fluoride — Drinking Ourselves to Death? 
by Barry Groves is a well-informed 
source of factual information on this 
subject. (Gill and Macmillan, 2001) 

12. Ibid. 

13. Waldblott, McKinney and Burgstahler: 
Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma, Coron- 
ado Press, 1978:288. 

14. Jour. Dent. Res. 1990; 69:723-7. 

15. Living in a democratic fluoridated coun- 
try,' Australian Fluoridation News, 

16. Barry Groves, Fluoride: Drinking our- 
selves to Death?, p. 227. Gill and Macmil- 
lan, 2001. 

17. Viktor Schauberger, Nature as Teacher, p. 5. 

18. The best ones have a four-stage system: 
ceramic for bacteria, carbon for chemi- 
cals and organic contaminants, ion ex- 
change for heavy metals, and block car- 
bon for final cleansing; the filters being 
easy to change, every six months. 

19. We discussed higher energies interpene- 
trating our physical world in Chapter 2. 

20. Our Senseless Toil, PL U, p. 14. 

21. The energies are essentially dynagens, or 
growth-promoting, created by the bio- 
metal composition — silver (male), and 
copper (female); the silver also has bacte- 
ricidal properties. Dynagens are also pro- 
duced by the centripetal movement of the 
main water body flowing down the cen- 
tre, raising the overall vitality, life-energy 
and wholesomeness of the water. 

22. Callum Coats describes these experi- 
ments in detail in Living Energies. 


23. Our Senseless Toil, ft D, p. 34. 

24. Heart specialists were recently astonished 
to discover that blood flow through the 
heart and arteries depended on a spiral 
movement (New Scientist, Feb. 6,2001). 

25. 'Hydrodynamics of Blood How,' by Dr. 
Ernst 0. Attinger, Div. Biomedical Engi- 
neering, University of Virginia Medical 
Centre, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA. 

13. The Role of the Forest 

1. From the Schauberger Archives. 

2. 'The Dying Forest' ('Der sterbende 
Wald'), by Viktor Schauberger, ft 1: Tau 
magazine. Vol 15 1, Nov. 1936, p. 30. 

3. The Gulf Stream, which gives north-west 
Europe an exceptionally mild climate, 
might fail for two reasons: (a) the inability 
of the failing Amazonian heat engine to 
push the stream from the Caribbean; (b) 
the cold, salty waters around Greenland 
power two 'pumps' which draw the warm 
Gulf Stream towards Northwest Europe, 
and send cold water back southwards. The 
heavy cold water streaming down the 
coasts of Greenland pours into the abysses, 
propelling forward me lighter and warmer 
Gulf Stream. Fresh water from the melting 
Greenland icecap could weaken the pumps 
and close down the Gulf Stream. An im- 
portant new theory is that, within a few 
years of the failure of the Gulf Stream 
pumps off Greenland, a new mini ice age 
would quickly spread in the North Atiantic, 
with temperatures dropping by 10°F in 
north-eastern USA and in Western Europe 
(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Re- 
port, Nexus, Feb.2003 and especially see Interestingly, over seventy 
years ago, Viktor Schauberger predicted 
that over-clearing of forest and critical 
mismanagement of water supplies would 
lead to a new ice age (in Our Senseless Toil). 

4. Soil under forest floors retains ten times 
more water than nearby grassland. The 
Amazonian basin was almost devoid of 
humid tropical rainforest in the last 
glaciations. Clearing the forest produces 
high contrast between day and night 
temperatures, gusty winds and dry soil. 
Clear-cutting and burning cause dieback 
in neighbouring forest; water table disap- 
pears and desertification ensues. 

5. 1.5 to 2 million animal species live in the 
forest canopy. A profusion of epiphytes 

(ferns, orchids, and so on) takes up nutri- 
ents flushed down by heavy rain. All nutri- 
ents are retained within the entire system, 
and provide for the lateral expansion of the 
forest. Medicinal plants are common, many 
of which are as yet unresearched and may 
be lost forever. The tropical rainforest envi- 
ronment exhibits the highest levels of evo- 
lutionary development and biodiversity. 

6. Destroy the Amazon — Destroy the 
World' by Peter Bunyard, The Ecologist, 
Jul/Aug 2002 

7. The Amazonian Forest produces latent heat to 
drive air masses in three separate directions: 

1. Crossing the Caribbean to Florida, 
helps drive the Gulf Stream NE 

2. Over the Andes into the Pacific west- 
erly, following the trade winds 

3. Southwards, towards Patagonia 

In the temperate latitudes, rainfall is de- 
rived from moisture-laden winds blow- 
ing in from the oceans. The tropical rain- 
forests, on the other hand, particularly 
the Amazonian, actually create rainfall 
and recycle it. Only 25% of the Sun's en- 
ergy heats the air. The remaining 75% is 
converted into 'latent heat' by evapo-tran- 
spiration, the mechanism through which 
water is pumped into the atmosphere 
from the leaves and stems of the plants. 
The humid air rises rapidly, forming cu- 
mulo-nimbus and layered clouds that ir- 
rigate areas further downwind, releasing 
the latent heat energy back into the at- 
mosphere. Two-thirds of the world's rain- 
fall is affected by these cloud systems 
that also produce most of the world's 
lightning in a narrow band on either side 
of the Equator, helping to power the out- 
reach of surplus energy from Amazonia 
to neighbouring countries. 

8. Except when the El Nino is operating a 
contrary wind system. 

9. Permaculture Institute, P.O.Box 1, Pyal- 
gum 2480, NSW, Australia Permaculture 
International Ltd, P.O.Box 6039, South 
Lismore 2480, Australia. 

14. The Life and Nature of Trees 

I. Viktor Schauberger insisted that we must 
understand more about the vital impor- 
tance of trees for our environment. This 
chapter, except for the last section, is rela- 
tively standard information about trees 
which, as the highest form of the veg- 

etable kingdom, have a mediating role 
with the animal kingdom. 

2. From Design in Nature by J. Bell Petti- 
grew, Longman Green, 1908, p. 671 

3. Adapted from Health and Light by Dr. 
John NOtt: Devin-Adair, Greenwich CT, 
USA, 1973. 

4. There is an intriguing exception to this 
rule. Balsa, the softest wood of all, grows 
in certain equatorial forests. This sug- 
gests that the wood-quality-determining 
frequency has proceeded past the point 
where hardwoods are created and has re- 
entered the resonant conditions of the 
softwood-generating frequencies, al- 
though one full octave below, because 
balsawood is a magnitude softer than the 
softest of normal softwoods. 

5. Schauberger found that the quality of 
resonant timber could be improved by 
submersion in a highly energetic moun- 
tain stream. In fact, the timber for the fa- 
mous Stradivarius violins that had su- 
perb resonance was from mulberry that 
had fallen into Alpine streams. 

6. See Wertheimer, N.,'Electrical Wiring 
Configurations and Childhood Cancer': 
American Journal of Epistemiology 
(Mar. 1979). Also: Perry, S. and Pearly, L., 
'Power Frequency Magnetic Fields and 
Illness in Multi-Storey Blocks,' Public 
Health (1988) p. 102. See also: Dowdson, 
D et al.,'Overhead High Voltage Cables 
and Recurrent Headaches and Depres- 
sion: Practitioner, 1988, pp. 435-6. 

7. Cowan, D. and Girdlestone, R. in Safe as 
Houses? describe the German researcher 
Volkrodt's theory of the resonance similar- 
ity of some trees' leaves and needles to mi- 
crowave receivers. 

8. Ibid. 

9. Girdlestone regards brief exposure to a 
microwave oven in good condition not to 
be dangerous. The problem, he says, is that 
acceptable emissions vary internationally; 
he quotes one German test in which 
nearly all the 101 ovens emitted more than 
the makers' guarantee, but passed the Ger- 
man requirements, while all would have 
failed the Russian standard. 

10. Callum Coats gives a fuller description of 
photosynthesis in Living Energies, pp. 
218-220, from which our table is repro- 

11. See Bunyard, The Breakdown of Climate, 
p. 77. 


15. The Metabolism of the Tree 

1. Viktor Schauberger, Our Senseless Toil, 

2. For greater detail on this experiment, see 
Viktor's description in The Water Wizard, 
pp. 50-52, or Callum Coats in Living En- 
ergies, pp. 131-32. Callum also describes 
another experiment designed by William 
Morgan in the 1860s that shows the ac- 
tion of true springs. 

3. Diagrams from Wurzelatlas; mitteleu- 
ropaischer Grunlandpflanzen, Vol. 1, 
Monocotyledoneae' 1982, and Vol.2, 
Pteridophyta und Dicotyledoneae,' 1992, 
by L.Kutschera and E.Lichtenegger: 
G.Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany. 

16. Soil Fertility and Cultivation 

1. Tau magazine, Vol. 146, p. 1 1,1936. 

2. Our Senseless Toil, Ptl, p. 13. 

3. From the Schauberger Archives. 

4. Genetic Engineering, by Mae- Wan Ho, 

Gateway 1998, Gill and Macmillan, 2000. 

17. Organic Cultivation 

1. The Survival of Civilization, self-pub- 
lished by John Hamaker and Don Weaver. 

2. Further detailed information on rock 
dust can be obtained from any of the fol- 
lowing: Don Weaver, P.OBox 1961, 
Burlingame, CA 94010, USA; Joanna 
Campe, ed. of Remineralize the Earth, 152 
South St., Northampton, MD 01060, USA; 
Barry Oldfield, president,'Men of the 
Trees,' 3 Over Avenue, Lesmurdie 6076, W 
Australia; Das Buch von Steinmehl by 
Helmut Snoek: Orac-Pietsch, Germany. 

3. Alex Podolinsky's work is fully elaborated 
in The Secrets of the Soil, by Christopher 
Bird: Harper, New York 

4. Austrian Patent No.265991. 

5. Implosion, No.45, p. 3. 

6. Excerpt from a letter from Viktor 
Schauberger to Dagmar Sarkar in the 
mid-1950s; the diagram has been re- 
drawn and annotated by Callum Coats 
for greater clarity. 

7. An alternative egg-shaped amniotic liq- 
uid manure transformer is described on 
p. 273 of Living Energies. 

8. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine. 

9. Viktor Schauberger uses the prefix ur- to 

indicate what he called the 'first born or 
basically primeval. 

10. Schauberger Archives, Linz, January 1952. 

11. Viktor Schauberger, Our Senseless Toil. 

12. Excerpt from a letter from Viktor 
Schauberger to Dagmar Sarkar in the 
mid-1950s; the diagram has been re- 
drawn and annotated by Callum Coats 
for greater clarity. 

13. Implosion magazine, No.37, p. 8. 

18. Harnessing Implosion Power 

1. The Hunt for Zero Point, by Nick Cook, 
Century 2001. Nick Cook is a veteran aero- 
space researcher; he is Aviation Editor and 
Aerospace Consultant to Jane's Defence 
Weekly, the world's leading military affairs 
journal, and Industry/Defence Editor of In- 
teravia, the aerospace trade publication. 

2. Ibid. 

3. For background, refer to After 50 years the 
Cover-up Conspiracy goes on' by Hamish 
Mackenzie (Sunday Express, June 16, 
2002), on Dr Stephen Greer's Disclosure 
Project' to persuade Congress to set up an 
open hearing on the secrecy surrounding 
the US government's UFO and alien con- 
tact and research programmes. The big US 
corporations like Boeing, Lockheed Mar- 
tin, Northrop Grumman would benefit 
most from alien technology. 

4. The Hunt for Zero Point, Nick Cook. 

5. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine, 

6. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine, 

7. Living Energies, p. 276. The Schauberger 
quote is from Mensch und Technik, year 
24, vol.2, 1993. 

8. Callum Coats cites Russian research pub- 
lished in 1992, which describes space as 
multi-layered (layers, if you like, belong- 
ing to different dimensions); and a vac- 
uum, not a 'curved void' as usually under- 
stood, but to be composed of elementary 
vacuum particles resulting from the con- 
version of actual electrons and protons 
into virtual states which exist, not in our 
space, but in a complementary layer. (Liv- 
ing Energies, p. 276) 

9. Letter to Aloys Kokaly in 1953 — Implo- 
sion magazine, no. 29, p. 22. 

10. From St Barbe Baker's Foreword to The 
Schauberger Departure, (September 28, 
1980) which was the original tide for what 

subsequently became Living Energies. 

11. Callum Coats commented that the water 
she poured in was probably charged with 
silicates, which Viktor considered essen- 
tial to healthy water. The natural oscillat- 
ing concentrative vortical flow in healthy 
streams also produced Viktor's 'emul- 
sions' from the fine dispersions of miner- 
als and trace elements (including sili- 
cates) which endow the 
upstream-moving water with the levita- 
tional energies that enable trout or 
salmon to negotiate high waterfalls. 

12. A. Khammas in Implosion magazine. 

13. Living Energies, p. 287. 

14. These phenomena are discussed in 
greater detail in Living Energies, pp. 
275-93, and particularly in Energy Evolu- 

15. Viktor Schauberger, Implosion magazine, 

19. Viktor Schauberger and Society 

1. Increasingly, one is drawn to Gurdjieff s 
dictum, that humanity is asleep, or to 
change the metaphor, the blind are lead- 
ing the blind. 

2. Our Senseless Toil. 

3. Unpublished ms. The authors are NLP 
trainers. Peter Wrycza's book Living 
Awareness — Awakening to the roots of 
Learning and Perception was published 
by Gateway in 1997. A few pioneers in ed- 
ucation have attempted to redress this 
overemphasis on absorbing discrete facts 
that have no connection to the student, 
by adopting a more holistic, inclusive, ap- 
proach. The most successful of these have 
probably been Maria Montessori 
(Montessori schools for the younger 
ages) and Rudolf Steiner (the Waldorf 
Schools) for the whole age range. 

4. Fast Forward into Trouble' by Cathy 
Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy (Guardian 
Weekend, June 14,2003) on how murder, 
fraud, and drug offences are plaguing the 
peaceful Buddhist idyll of Bhutan, only 
four years after the introduction of 46 ca- 
ble TV channels. 

5. Interview by Ursula Kenny in The Ob- 
server, September 1,2002, in connection 
with the publication of Dr Rowe's book 
Beyond Fear, Harper Collins, 2002. 

6. A short biography of Walter Schauberger 
can be found on the PKS website. 



Schauberger- & Ecotechnology-associated Websites & addresses 

(For more up to date information, please look on our website: 

The Schauberger Institute & Research Centre, 
known as the PKS (Pythagoras Kepler School), of 
which Jorg Schauberger, Viktor's grandson, is the 

PKS, Kaltenbach 162,4821, Lauffen, Bad Ischl, 

Norbert Harthun, one of Walter Schauberger's col- 
leagues still runs the group that is probably closest 
to Viktor Schauberger's work. 

Groupe der Neuen: 

Callum Coats, the principal authority in the 
English language, on Viktor Schauberger's 
research. He spent several years studying with 
Walter Schauberger and then, over a period of 
nearly twenty years, set about translating and edit- 
ing most of the archive of Viktor's writing. He is 
the author of Living Energies and the editor of the 
four- volume Eco-technology series: 

www. Schauberger-Ecotechnology. com 

The U.K. networking centre, run by Alick 
Bartholomew. Its purpose is to keep an up-to-date 
list of various research projects around the world, 
and to make available Schauberger books, CDs, 
videos & tapes: 

Sulis Health, The Hollies, Wellow, Bath, UK, BA2 
8QJ; www. 

The Living Water Vortex Jug, and its little cousin the 
portable Aqua- Vortex (derivatives of Schauberger 
technology) oxygenate and restructure the water, 
improving its energy and taste. These, a plumbed- 
in filter that removes fluorides and most pollu- 
tants, and the Personal Harmonizers may be 
obtained through: 

Institute of Ecological Technology (the Swedish 
Malmo group) are the inheritors of Olof 
Alexandersson's research: 

The Schauberger Copper Gardening Tools are 
produced by Johannes Stadler at: 
PKS, 162 Kaltenbach, A-4821, Lauffen, Austria; 

— U.K. agent: Implementations, PO Box 2568, 

Nuneaton, CV10 9YR, UK 
www. implementations, co. uk 

— US agent: Eco-Restorative Institute, 

708 Gravenstein Hwy North #139, 
Sebastopol, CA 95472 

Water Vortex Systems, PO Box 1295, Bandera, 
Texas 78003, USA 


Clean Water, in Denmark, is the manufacturer of 
the Living Water Vortex jugs. Their website is in 
Danish, Dutch, English & German: 

Dr Masaru Emoto's books — The Message from 
Water (see Bibliography) — may be obtained in 
the UK from Sulis Health, The Hollies. Wellow, 
Bath, BA2 8QJ (01225 833 150); 

In the USA at: 
Dr Emoto's website contains back- 
ground to the research, some photographs and 
networking information. 

The Vortex and Implosion — professional & 
informative sites: and 
www. homepage.ntlworld. com 

Vortex World, 

William Baumgartner's site; implosion-on-line 
newsletter: www. vortexscience. com 

Martin Chaplin of South Bank Univ. on water 

Dr Patrick Flanagan's microclusters in water: 

Dr Jacques Beneviste's research on memory in 

David Dennard has put on his website chapters of 
his book The Pearl of Wisdom which deals with 
the power of the Vortex, which are worth reading: 

Orgone Labs for books & videos: 

Holis, a useful German website: 

Filmstream — Water videos: 

Geoff Egel's Encyclopedia of Free Energy, a.k.a. 
'Solaris' and 'Research Triangle:' 

Frank Germano has an informative Schauberger 
site. He networks regularly with engineers world- 
wide, attempting to reconstruct Viktor's implosion 
devices. Main interests: the repulsine, the home 
power generator, the biotechnical submarine 
(adapted to air travel for an airship), the water 
energizers and whorl-pipes: 



Abram, David The Spell of the Sensuous. Random 
House, 1996; Vintage 1997. (A visionary view of 
humans' connection with the Earth and with Nature.) 

Alexanders son, Olof Living Water. Turnstone, 1982; 
Gateway 1984; Gill and Macmillan, 2002. {Good 
accessible portrait of Viktor Schauberger and his ideas 
about water; first published 1977 in Swedish.) 

Ardui, Jan and Wrycza, Peter The Way of Unfolding 
(unpublished ms). 

Ash, David and Hewett, Peter The Vortex. Gateway, 
1990. (Many superstitions and mysteries may be 
explained in terms of energy. Good introduction to vor- 
tex theory.) 

Backster, Cleve Primary Perception — Biocommuni- 
cation with Plants, Living Foods and Human Cells. 
White Rose Millennium Press, 2003 (or from (38 years after the first star- 
tling experiment which demonstrated plants'reaction to 
threats to their well being, this seminal and very readable 
book has finally appeared. It would be impossible to over- 
estimate the importance of this research, for it goes to the 
heart of the basis of life — that all of life is interconnected 
and interdependent, and that all actions have wider conse- 
quences. It lifts a little the edge of the intricate web of life.) 

Bartholomew, Alick The Schauberger Keys 
( (A summary of Viktor 
Schauherger's worldview, originating as notes made dur- 
ing the writing of Hidden Nature.) 

Baker, Richard St Barbe Dance of the Trees. 
Oldbourne, 1956. 

— , I Planted Trees. Lutterworth, 1944. 

— , My Life, My Trees. Lutterworth, 1970; Findhorn, 
1979. (One of the great pioneers of restoring our forests.) 

Bellamy, David 101 Ways to Save the Earth. Lincoln 

— , The Bellamy Herbal, Century 2003. 

— , Bellamy's New World: Botanical History of 

America. BBC 1983; Smithmark 1985. 
— , The Changing World: The Forest. Simon and 

Schuster Educ. 1991, Lincoln, 1999. 
— , The River. Simon and Schuster Educ. 1991, 

Lincoln, 1999. 
— , The Rock Pool. Random, 1988; Simon and 

Schuster Educ. 1991. 
— , The Road Side. Random, 1988. 
— , How Green are You? Random 1991; Lincoln, 1991. 
—Jolly Green Giant. Century, 2002; Arrow 2003. 
— , Tomorrow's Earth: A Squeaky-Green Earth. 

Courage, 1992. 
Bird, Christopher and Tompkins, Peter The Secret 

Life of Plants. Harper, 1989. 
— , Secrets of the Soil. Harper, 1989. (Two classics in 

the area of alternative science.) 
Blair, Lawrence Rhythms of Vision. Croom Helm, 

1975. (The changing worldview of science.) 
Blossfeldt, Karl Urformen der Kunst. Wasmuth, 1935. 

(Superb photogravure plates of plant growth.) 
Bunyard, Peter The Breakdown of Climate. Floris 

Books, 1999. (Excellent description of how climate 

works and of the human causes of climate change.) 
— , (ed.) Gaia in Action. Floris Books, 1996. 
Burr, Harold Blueprint for Immortality: Electrical 

Patterns of Life Discovered. Spearman, 1972. (A 

classic in its field) 
Carson, Rachel Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, 
1962; Collins, 1964. (The book that inspired the envi- 
ronmental movement.) 

Coats, Callum Living Energies. Gateway, 1996; Gill 
and Macmillan, 2001. (The most authoritative study 
of V. Schauberger's research; took eighteen years to write.) 

Cobbald, Jane The Spiral Dance — A Look at Viktor 
Schauherger's Life & Work; — not quite published. 
(Viktor's descriptions of what he saw, his explanations of 
Nature's processes that he observed, and the inventions he 
developed as a result of his understanding.) 

Cook, Nick The Hunt for Zero Point. Century, 2001. 
(A veteran aeronautical editor investigates how the US 
military/defence programme might have befitted from 
German WWII secret weapons development. A fascinat- 
ing story of the search for anti-gravity and powerless 
flight which indicates that Schauberger was its pioneer.) 

Cori, Patricia The Cosmos of Soul. Gill and 
Macmillan (Gateway), 2001. (An introduction to cos- 
mic science.) 

Cowan, David and Girdlestone, Rodney Safe as 
Houses? Ill Health and Electro-stress in the Home. 
Gateway, 1996. (A well-researched and useful guide to 
electromagnetic and geopathic stress.) 
Edwards, Lawrence The Vortex of Life. Floris Books, 
1993. (Fascinating research into Nature's patterns, par- 
ticularly on the geometry of bud growth.) 
Emoto, Masaru The Message from Water. Hado 
Publishing, Vol. 1,1999, vol.2, 2001. (Remarkable 
photographs of ice crystals demonstrating water's ability 
to record resonances (hado) of different energy qualities, 
of thoughts, emotions and of music. Vol. 1 is more gener- 
al, of social icons, vol. 2 more personal (e.g. family life), 
vol. 3 Love Thyself, the power of prayer. See Resources. 
Captions and brief text in Japanese and English.) For a 
fuller description of Emoto's research and ideas see: 
— , The Hidden Messages in Water, Beyond Words 
Publishing, 2004. (In addition to the readable text, 
there is a good selection of photographs.) 
Gelbspan, Ross The Heat is On. Perseus, 1997. (A 

study of global warming issues.) 
Grohman, Gerbert The Plant. Steiner, 1974. (An 

anthroposophical study of the plant.) 
Groves, Barry Fluoride, Drinking Ourselves to Death? 
Gill and Macmillan, 2001. (Readable and a reliable 

Hageneder, Fred The Spirit of Trees. Floris Books, 

— , The Heritage of Trees. Floris Books, 2001. 
(Impassioned and inspiring study of the lore of trees — 
spiritual, symbolic, historical and scientific.) 

Ho, Mae-Wan Genetic Engineering, Dream or 
Nightmare? Gateway, 1998. (Widely regarded as pro- 
viding the most sustained and reasoned challenge to 
many of the scientific assumptions underlying genetic 

— , The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of 
Organisms. World Scientific, 1993. (A holistic, cam- 
paigning biologist.) 

Jenny, Hans Kymatik/Cymatics. Basilims, 1945. 

Johnson, Steven Emergence. Scribner; Allen Lane, 
2001. (How complex systems can arise spontaneously as 
part of Nature's evolutionary imperative.) 

Lattacher, Siegbert Viktor Schauberger — Auf den 
Spuren des legendaren Naturforschers (On the 
track of the legendary Natural Researcher). 
Ennstaler, 1999. (The first significant biography of 
Viktor Schauberger. It concentrates on his wartime 

Lovelock, James Gaia, A New Look at Life on Earth. 
Oxford, 1979. 

— , The Ages of Gaia. Oxford, 1988. 

— , Gaia, The Practical Science of Planetary 
Medicine. Gaia, 1991. 

— , Healing Gaia, Practical Medicine for the Planet. 
Gaia, 1991; Harmony, 1991. (The scientist of Gaia 
who will never get his deserved Nobel prize because the 
Establishment doesn't like pioneers.) 

Lusar, Rudolf Secret Weapons of World War U. 

Manning, Jeane The Coming Energy Revolution. 
Avery, 1996. (A good overall assessment of alternative 
sources of energy) 

Marks, William The Holy Order of Water. Bell Pond, 
2001. (A passionate study of water lore and science, 
from ancient Greece to our present challenges of pollu- 
tion and ecological destruction.) 

Michel, John City of Revelation. Garnstone, 1972. 

(A classic of sacred geometry.) 
McKibben, Bill The End of Nature. Random House, 


Milner, Edward The Tree Book. Collins and Brown, 

Ott, John Health and Light. Devin- Adair, 1973. 

Pedler, Kit The Quest for Gaia. Souvenir, 1979. 

Price, Weston Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. 
Price-Pottenger, 1935; Keats, 1989. (In the early 
1930s, Dr Price and his wife recorded the physical and 
mental degeneration of indigenous communities all over 
the world which were experiencing the impact of modern 
culture and diet. A remarkable and seminal study.) 

Russell, Peter The Awakening Earth. Routledge, 1982. 

Schauberger, Viktor Our Senseless Toil (Unsere 
Sinnlose Arbeit). KrystaU, 1933; PKS, 2002. (A new 
German edition is now available from the PKS Institute 
in Austria, see 

Also, in the Eco-technology series (Callum Coats, tr. 

and ed.): 

— , The Water Wizard. Gateway, 1998. (A selection of 
Viktor's writings about the qualities of water in its natu- 
ral state, problems with water supply and delivery, much 
on river flow and river regulation.) 

— ,Nature as Teacher. Gateway, 1998. (Thoughts 
about environmental catastrophe; correspondence with 
contemporaries and frustrations with establishment 

— , The Fertile Earth. Gill and Macmillan 
(Gateway), 2000. (Schauberger's writings on trees and 
forestry practice; fertilization of the soil, biodynamic 
agriculture, failure of contemporary farming; fertility 
and subtle energies in Nature.) 

— , Energy Evolution. Gill and Macmillan (Gateway), 
2000. (Viktor's writings about some of the principles 
behind the different kinds of suction and implosion 
machines he developed, for producing spring water; an 
air conditioner and free energy generation.) 

Schell, Jonathan The Fate of the Earth. Pan, 1982. 

Schwenk, Theodore Sensitive Chaos. Steiner, 1965. {A 

brilliant and original study of the behaviour of water; 

beautiful photographs.) 
— , and Wolfram Schwenk Water, Element of Life. 

Anthroposophic Press, 1989. (A more philosophical 

father and son co-authorship.) 
Sheldrake, Rupert A New Science of Life. Blond and 

Briggs, 1981. 
— , The Rebirth of Nature. Rider, 1990. 
Steiner, Rudolf The Nature of Substance. Steiner 

Press, 1966. 

Stevens, Peter Patterns in Nature. Little Brown, 1974, 
Peregrine 1978. (Hard to get hold of; generously 
illustrated — one of the best conceived books on this 
fascinating subject.) 

Thomas, William (ed.) Mans Role in Changing the 
Face of the Earth. Chicago, 1956. (Celebrated interna- 
tional anthropological symposium co-chaired by Carl 
Sauer, Marston Bates and Lewis Mumford.) 

Walsh-Roberts, Paul From Atoms to Angels. Gill and 
Macmillan (Gateway), 2001. (Very readable introduc- 
tion to a spiritual study of the human.) 

Wilkes, John Flowforms: the Rhythmic Power of 
Water. Floris Books, 2003. 

Wright, Machaelle Small Behaving as if the God in 
All Life Mattered. Perelandra, 1981,1997. 

— , Co-Creative Science: Revolution in Science with 
real Solutions for Today's Health and Environment. 
Perelandra, 1997. (Machaelle Wright founded 
Perelandra, a Nature research centre in Virginia, in 1977. 
She works with Nature intelligence with a conscious, 
coordinated programme and as an educational effort, 
demonstrating a new approach to health, horticulture 
and environmental balance.) 

Young, Arthur The Reflexive Universe. Delacorte, 
1976. (A pioneer of holistic cosmological thought.) 

Zuk, Bill Canada's Flying Saucers. The Story of Avro 
Canada's Secret Projects. Boston Mills Press, 

List of Illustrations 

Frontispiece: Viktor Schauberger 2 
Part One: 

1.1 The stationary trout 27 

1.2 Centrifugal and centripetal movement 33 
2.1 Different dimensions or levels of existence 46 

3.1 Cosmic fertilization 50 

3.2 Hydrogen symbol 51 

4.1 Sonorous figures 57 

4.2 Squaring the circle 65 

4.3 Vesica piscis 66 

4.4 Snail shell & hyperbolic spiral 67 

4.5 Pine cone symmetry 68 

Part Two: 

5.1 The fateful choice 78 

5.2 Energy and form 81 

5.3 A natural vortex 83 

6.1 Spiral galaxy and hyperbolic spiral 87 

6.2 Three basic forms of motion 88 

6.3 The planetary vortex 90 

7.1 Section through Earth's atmosphere 94 

7.2 & 3 Increase in potential and charge density 95 

7.4 Reduction in distance, increase in potential 96 

7.5 The terrestrial bio-condenser 97 

Part Three: 

8.1 Water drop pictures 107 

8.2 Longitudinal vortex 113 

9.1 Full hydrological cycle 118 

9.2 Half hydrological cycle 121 

9.3 & b Positive and negative temperature gradients 122 

9.4 Asymmetrical river development 124 
10.1 Seepage spring 128 
102 True and high altitude springs 130 

10.3 Free energy from the deep ocean 130 

10.4 Detail of apparatus 131 

11.1 Heating and cooling rhythms in river flow 137 

11.2 Groundwater recharge 139 

1 1.3 Ingenious method of re-energizing a river 140 

11.4 Egg-shaped body to generate vortices 142 

115 Energy release in the environment 143 

11.6 River bend formation 144 

11.7 Sand banks in conventional channels 147 

11.8 Schauberger's microscopic evidence 148 

11.9 Egg-shaped hydro-electric device 149 
121 Double-spiral longitudinal vortex 157 

12.2 Flow dynamics of double spiral pipe 158 

Part Four: 

13.1 Amazon basin heat engine and N. Atlantic 172 

14.1 Functions of animals and vegetables 183 

142 The electromagnetic spectrum 184 

14.3 Tree type distribution 189 

14.5 Tree rings showing unbalanced growth 191 

14.6 Photosynthesis 194 
15.1 Cross section through tree trunk 200 
152 Rising sap diagram 201 

15.3 Rising sap experiment 202 

15.4 Horizontal trunk section with dielectric layers 204 
155 Vertical trunk section with ring temperature decrease 205 

15.6 The metabolism of the tree 206 

15.7 A variety of root systems 208 

Part Five: 

16.1 15cm long ears of rye with up to 104 grains/ear 218 

162 Potatoes grown on Alpine farm at Kitzbiihel 218 

16.3 The golden or bio-plough 219 

17.1 Egg-shaped compost heap 227 

172 Motor driven mixing device with golf-club shaped impeller 230 

17.3 Egg-shaped fermentation chamber 232 

17.4 Viktor's energy exchange diagram 237 

Part Six: 

18.1 Tornado home-power generator 250 

1 8 2 a 8c b Alexandersson's and Schauberger's repulsator 253 

18.3 a&b Repulsine prototypes 256 

18.4 Cross section through flying saucer 257 

A. 1 The Pytghagoras Kepler School at Engleithen 265 

A.2 Flowform at Sundet in Norway 267 

A.3 Vortex energizer 268 

A.4 Personal harmonizer 267 

A.5 Living water vortex jug 268 

A.6 Vortex water system 268